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A Modeft Enquiry 

Into the Nature- of 



i How Pcrfons Guilty of that Crime 
1 may be ConvitteJ : And the means 
; u.ccl ior .their Dikrovery Dilcuffedj 

j both Negatively and Affirmatively* 

according t<^ SCRIPIVR’P and 
r X P E 'K I E N C B. 

By $ale, 

Pahor oi The Church ofChrM in Bevtrfa 
An*o Df'winr 1^7-' 

_ ___ j , r | n - 

ti When ike, fa MV <■;<>!,, j"k time them that have 
U Familiar . r.:l ante tfi^itjkat f «?,«« 

i I To the Lav an,! to the TtBimon^ t( -they }ft*k 
not aeeordin^ to tins word* it it btial&tbtri is no 
light in 1 faith VI 11* 1 

T hat wf/tch V 1 n?t t**cb thou me. Job 34 3’ 2 ’ 1 

B OS TO N in N. E 
. Printed- by B. Green, and 7* ?%'*> * nl 
l Benjamin Eliot under the TeWn Hnute. 170? 

Title Page 

Page 1 

A Modest Enquiry Into the Nature of Witchcraft, AND How 
Persons Guilty of that Crime may be Convicted: And the means 
used for their Discovery Discussed, both Negatively and 
Affirmatively, according to SCRIPTURE and EXPERIENCE. By John 
Dale, Pastor of the Church of Christ in Beverley, Anno Domini 
1697. When they say unto you, seek unto them that have 
Familiar Spirits and unto Wizzards, that peep, and c To the Law 
and to the Testimony; if they speak not according, to this word, 
it is because there is no light in them, Isaiah VIII. 19, 20. That 
which I see not teach thou me, Job 34. 32. BOSTON in N. E. 
Printed by B. Green, and J. Alten, for Benjamin Eliot under the 
Town House. 1702. 

Page 2 

Any general Custom against the Law of God is void. St. Germans 
Abridgment of Common Law. Lib. 1. C. 6. Omnium legum est 
inanis censura nisi Divin legis imaginem gerat. Finch of Common 
Law. Lib. 4. C. 3. Where a Law is grounded upon a Presumption, 
if the Presumption fail the Law is not to be holden in Conscience. 
Abridgment of C. Law. Lib. 1. C. 19. 

To the Reader 

Page 3 

An Epistle to the READER. It hath been said of Old, That Time is 
the Mother of Truth, and Truth is the Daughter of Time. It is the 
Prerogative of the God of Truth, to know all the truth in all things 
at once and together: It is also his Glory to conceal a 
matter, Prov. 25. 2. And to bring the truth to light in that manner 
and measure, and the times appointed, as it pleaseth him; it is 
our duty in all humility, and with fear and trembling to search 
after truth, knowing that secret things belong to God, and only 
things revealed belong to us, and so far as they are revealed; for 
in many things it may be said what God is doing we know not 
now; but we, or others that succeed us; shall know hereafter. 
Omitting other Examples, I shall Instance only in the matter of 
Witchcraft, which on the Humane side, is one of the most hidden 
Works of Darkness, managed by the Rulers of the darkness of 
this World, to the doing of great spoil amongst the Children of 
men: And on the Divine side, it is one of the most awful and 

Page 4 

Judgments of God which can be inflicted on the Societies of men, 
especially when the Lord shall please for his own Holy Ends to 
Enlarge Satans Commission in more than an ordinary way. It is 
known to all men, that it pleased God some few years ago, to 
suffer Satan to raise much trouble amongst us in that respect, 
the beginning of which was very small, and looked on at first as 
an ordinary case which had fallen out before at several times in 
other places, and would be quickly over. Only one or two persons 
belonging to Salem Village about five miles from the Town being 
suspected, were Examined, and c. But in the progress of the 
matter, a multitude of other persons both in that and other 
Neighbour Towns, were Accused, Examined, Imprisoned, and 
came to their Trials, at Salem, the County Town, where about 
Twenty of them Suffered as Witches; and many others in danger 
of the same Tragical End: and still the number of the Accused 
increased unto many Scores; amongst whom were many Persons 
of unquestionable Credit, never under any grounds of suspicion 
of that or any other Scandalous Evil. This brought a general 
Consternation upon all sorts of People, doubting what would be 
the issue of such a dreadful Judgment of God upon the Country; 
but the Lord was pleased suddenly to put a stop to those 
proceedings, that there was no further trouble, as hath been 
related by others. But it left in the minds of men a sad 
remembrance of that sorrowful time; and a Doubt whether some 
Innocent Persons might not 

Page 5 

Suffer, and some guilty Persons Escape. There is no doubt but 
the Judges and Juries proceeded in their Integrity, with a zeal of 
God against Sin, according to their best light, and according to 
Law and Evidence; but there is a Question yet unresolved. 
Whether some of the Laws, Customs and Principles used by the 
Judges and Juries in the Trials of Witches in England (which were 
followed as Patterns here) were not insufficient and unsafe. As 
for my Self, being under the Infirmities of a decrepit Old Age, I 
stirred little abroad, and was much disenabled (both in body and 
mind) from knowing and judging of Occurrents and Transactions 
of that time: But my Reverend Brother Mr. Hale, having for 
above Thirty Years, been Pastor of the Church at Beverly (but 
Two Miles from Salem, where the Tryals were) was frequently 
present, and was a diligent Observer of all that passed, and being 
one of a Singular Prudence and Sagacity, in searching into the 
narrows of things: He hath (after much deliberation) in this 
Treatise, related the Substance of the Case as it was, and given 

Reasons from Scripture against some of the Principles and 
Practises then used in the Tryals of Witchcraft; and said 
something also in a Positive way, and shewing the right 
Application that is to be made of be whole, and all this in such a 
pious and modest manner, as cannot be offensive to any, but 
may be generally acceptable to all the lovers of Truth and Peace. 

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I am the more willing to accompany him to the Press, because I 
am perswaded such a Treatise as this is needful and useful, upon 
divers accounts. As, 1. That the Works of God may be known; 
and that God may be more acknowledged and adored, in his 
Justice, and in his Mercy: in his Justice, by letting loose Evil 
Angels, to make so great a spoyl amongst us as they did, for the 
Punishment of a declining People: And in his Mercy, by 
Countermanding of Satans Commission, and keeping of him in 
Chains of restraint, that he should proceed no further Psal 83. 
last. 2. That the Truth of things may be more fully known, so far 
as God shall please to reveal the same in the use of lawful 
means; for the Judgments of God are a great deep, and he is 
wont to make known truth by degrees; and Experience teacheth 
us, there is need of more to be said than hath been yet, for the 
clearing up of difficulties about the matter of Witchcraft. We 
ought to be fellow helpers to the truth. 3 Epistle of John 8. v. 3 
That whatever Errors or Mistakes we fell into, in the dark hour of 
Temptation that was upon us, may be (upon more light) so 
discovered, acknowledged and disowned by us, as that it may be 
matter of Warning and Caution to those that come after us, that 
they may not fall into the like. 1 Cor. 10. 11. Faelix quern faciunt 
aliena pericula cautum. 4. And that it may Occasion the most 
Learned and Pious men to make a further and fuller Enquiry 

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into the matter of Witchcraft, especially into the positive part, 
How Witches may be so discovered, that innocent persons may 
be preserved, and none but the guilty may suffer. Prov 17. 15. 
Verily whosoever shall by the Grace of God be en abled to 
Contribute further light in this matter, will do good Service to 
God and Men in his Generation. I would also propound and leave 
it as an Object of Consideration to our Honoured Magistrates and 
Reverend Ministers, Whether the /Equity of that Law in Leviticus, 
Chap. 4 for a Sin offering for the Rulers and for the 
Congregation, in the case of Sins of Ignorance, when they come 
to be known, be not Obliging, and for direction to us in a Gospel 
way. Now the Father of Lights and Mercies grant unto us, that 
Merey and Truth may meet together, that righteousness and 

peace may kiss each other, that the Glory of God may dwell in 
our Land; and that it may be said of New England;The Lord Bless 
thee, 0 Habitation of Justice and Mountain of Holiness. Finally, 
That the Blessing of Heaven may go along with this little Treatise 
to attain the good Ends thereof, is, and shall be the Prayer of 
him who is daily waiting for his Change, and looking for the 
Mercy of the Lord Jesus Christ unto Eternal Life: March 23d, 

1697, 8. John Digginson, Pastor of the Church, of Salem. /Etatis 


Page 8 

The Preface TO THE Christian READER. The Holy Scriptures 
inform us that the Doctrine of Godliness is a great 
Mystery, containing the Mysteries of the Kingdom of Heaven: 
Mysteries which require great search for the finding out: And as 
the Lord hath his Mysteries to bring us to Eternal Glory; so Satan 
hath his Mysteries to bring us to Eternal Ruine: Mysteries not 
easily understood, whereby the depths of Satan are managed in 
hidden wayes. So the Whore of Babylon makes the Inhabitants of 
the Earth drunk with the Wine of her Fornication, by the Mystery 
of her abominations, Rev. 17. 2. And the man of Sin hath his 
Mystery of iniquity whereby he deceiveth men through the 
working of Satan in signes and lying wonders, 2 Thes. 2 3, 7, 9. 
And among Satans Mysteries of iniquity, this of Witchcraft is one 
of the most difficult to be searched out by the Sons of men; as 

Page 9 

by the great endeavours of Learned and Holy men to search it 
out, and the great differences that are found among them, in the 
rules laid down for the bringing to light these hidden works of 
darkness. So that it may seem presumption in me to undertake 
so difficult a Theam, and to lay down such rules as are different 
from the Sentiments of many Eminent writers, and from the 
Presidents and practices of able Lawyers; yea and from the 
Common Law it self. But my Apology for this undertaking is; 1. 
That there hath been such a dark dispensation by the Lord, 
letting loose upon us the Devil, Anno. 1691. and 1692. as we 
never experienced before: And thereupon apprehending and 
condemning persons for Witchcraft; and nextly acquitting others 
no less liable to such a charge; which evidently shew we were in 
the dark, and knew not what to do; but have gone too far on the 
one or other side, if not on both. Hereupon I esteemed it 
necessary for some person to Collect a Summary of that affair, 

with some animadversions upon it, which might at least give 
some light to them which come after, to shun those Rocks by 
which we were bruised, and narrowly escaped Shipwrack upon. 
And I have waited five years for some other person to undertake 
it, who might doe it better than I can, but find none; and judge it 
better to do what I can, 

Page 10 

than that such a work should be left undone. Better sincerely 
though weakly done, then not at all, or with such a byas of 
prejudice as will put false glosses upon that which was managed 
with uprightness of heart, though there was not so great a spirit 
of discerning, as were to be wished in so weighty a 
Concernment. 2. I have been present at several Examinations 
and Tryals, and knew sundry of those that Suffered upon that 
account in former years, and in this last affair, and so have more 
advantages than a stranger, to give account of these 
Proceedings. 3. I have been from my Youth trained up in the 
knowledge and belief of most of those principles I here question 
as unsafe to be used. The first person that suffered on this 
account in New England, about Fifty years since, was my 
Neighbour, and I heard much of what was charged upon her, and 
others in those times; and the reverence I bore to aged, learned 
and judicious persons, caused me to drink in their principles in 
these things, with a kind of Implicit Faith. Quo semel est imbuta 
recens servabit odorem, Testa diu A Child will not easily forsake 
the principles he hath been trained up in from his Cradle. But 
observing the Events of that sad Catastrophe, Anno 1692. I was 
brought to a more strict scanning of the principles I had imbibed, 
and by scanning, to question, and by questioning 

Page 11 

at length to reject many of them, upon the reasons shewed in 
the ensuing Discourse. It is an approved saying. Nihil certius, 
quam quod ex dubio fit certum: No truth more certain to a man, 
than that which he hath formerly doubted or denied, and is 
recovered from his error, by the convincing evidence of Scripture 
and reason. Yet I know and am sensible, that while we know but 
in part, man is apt in flying from a discovered error, to run into 
the contrary extream. Incidit in Scyllam qui vult vitare 
Charybdim. The middle way is commonly the way of truth. And if 
any can shew me a better middle way than I have here laid 
down, I shall be ready to embrace it: But the conviction must not 
be by vinegar or drollery, but by strength of argument. 4. I have 
had a deep sence of the sad consequence of mistakes in matters 
Capital; and their impossibility of recovering when compleated. 

And what grief of heart it brings to a tender conscience, to have 
been unwittingly encouraging of the Sufferings of the innocent. 
And I hope a zeal to prevent for the future such sufferings is 
pardonable, although there should be much weakness, and some 
errors in the pursuit thereof. 5. I observe the failings that have 
been on the one hand, have driven some into that which is 
indeed an extream on the other hand, 

Page 12 

and of dangerous consequence, vix. To deny any such persons to 
beunder theNew Testament, who by the Devils aid discover 
Secrets, or do work wonders. Therefore in the latter part of this 
discourse, I have taken pains to prove the Affirmative, yet with 
brevity, because it hath been done already by Perkins of 
Witchcraft. Glanvil his Saduciscus Triumphatus. Pt. 1. p. 1. to 90. 
and Pt.2. p 1 to 80. Yet I would not be understood to justify all 
his notions in those discourses, but acknowledge he hath 
strongly proved the being of Witches. 6. I have special reasons 
moving me to bear my testimony about these matters, before I 
go hence and be no more; the which I have here done, and I 
hope with some assistance of his Spirit to whom I commit my 
self and this my labour, even that God whose I am and whom I 
serve: Desiring his Mercy in Jesus Christ to Pardon all the Errors 
of his People in the day of darkness; and to enable us to sight 
with Satan by Spiritural Weapons, putting on the whole Armour 
of God. And tho' Satan by his Messengers may busset Gods 
Children, yet there's a promise upon right Resisting, he shall flee 
from them, Jam. 4. 7. And that all things shall work together for 
the good of those that Love the Lord, Rom. 8. 28. So that I 
believe Gods Children shall be gainers by the affaults of Satan, 
which occasion'd this Discourse; which that they may, is the 
Prayer of, Thine in the Service of the Gospel. Beverly, Decemb. 
15th. 1697 JOHN HALE 

Chapter 1 

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A Modest Enquiry, Into the Nature of WITCHCRAFT. CHAPTER I. 
Sect. 1. The Angels who kept not their First Estate, by Sin 
against God, lost their primitive purity, and glorious Excellency, 
as to their moral qualifications, and became unclean, wicked, 
envious, lyars, and full of all wickedness, which as Spirits they 
are capable of. Yet I do not find in Scripture that they lost their 
natural abilities of under, standing or power of Operation. 1. As 
for their Understanding, they are called Daimon (which we 
Translate Devil) because they are full of wisdom, cunning, skill, 

subtilty and knowledge. He hath also the name of Serpent from 
his subtilty, 2 Cor. 11. 3. And his knowledge in the Scriptures, 

Page 14 

and wittiness to pervert them, appears by his quoting Scripture 
to our Saviour When he tempted him Mat. 4. And as there be 
many Devils, and these active, quick, swift and piercing Spirits, 
so they going to and fro in the earth, and walking up and down 
in it, have advantages to know all the actions of the Children of 
men, both open and secret, their discourses, consultation and 
much of the inward affections of men thereby; though still its 
Gods prerogative immediately to know the heart. Jer. 17. 10. 2. 
As to their natural power as Spirity, its very great, if not equal to 
that of the Holy Angels: For, 1. They are called Principalities and 
Powers Rom. 8. 38. Eph. 6. 12 Col. 2, 14, 15. compared with 
Heb. 2 14. 15. Now these are names given to the Holy Angels 
Eph. 1. 21. and 3. 10. 2. They are called, Rulers of the darkness 
of this world, the Prince of the power of the Air. Eph. 6 12 and 2. 
2. 3. Such was their power that they contended with Michael and 
the Angels about the Body of Moses. 2 Pet. 2. 11. Jude 9. That 
is, as I conceive, about preventing the Burial of the Body of 
Moses. For it's said, Dent. 34. 6. The Lord buried him, and no 
man knoweth of his Sepulcher to this day. That is, he did it by 
the Ministry of Angels (for the Lord gave 

Page 15 

the Law, Exod. 20. 1 and that it was by the Ministry of Angels, 
see Gal. 3. 19. so probably was the burial of Moses's Body) and 
the Devils endeavour if possible, to discover Moses's Body, or 
place of its burial, that they might draw Israel to commit Idolatry 
in worshipping at his Tomb (as our Popish Fore-fathers did at 
Thomas Beckets in Kent) from the Veneration they had to him as 
their Law giver. 4. The Devils actings against Job, Chap. 1. and 
2. and what he did to the Gadarens Swine, and c. Shew his great 
power. So that we may conclude, had the Devils liberty to reveal 
all that they know of the affairs of mankind, or to do all that is in 
their power to perform, they would bring dreadful confusions and 
de solations upon the World. Sect 2. The way God governs Devils 
is by Chains. 2 Pet. 2. 4. Jude 6 ver. Rev. 20. 1, 2, 7, 8. whereby 
they are kept Prisoners. Men are governed by Laws, by 
convictions of Conscience. Rom. 2. 12, 13, 14, 15. By Scripture 
Rules, Humane Laws, and also by Gods Spirits 1 John 2. 20. But 
Devils have no such Laws, or tenderness of Conscience to bridle 
or restrain them. But the Lord hath his Chains, which are called 
Everlasting, and are always lasting; so that they are never 

wholly without a Chain. This Chain is somesimes greater and 
shorter, other times lesser and 

Page 16 

longer, as the Lord pleaseth, for his own Glory, Rev. 20. 1, 2, 7, 

8 For as the wrath of man praiseth the Lord, and the remainder 
of wrath be doth restrain; Psal. 76. 10. So may we say of the 
Devils wrath. Sect. 3. The Devil is full of malice against man, and 
frames his designs against him, chiefly to destroy his Soul, as, 1 
Pet. 5. 8 2 Cor. 11. 3 and other Scriptures abundantly testify. 
Hence probably at sometimes he doth not all the hurt to mans 
Body that he could, lest thereby he should awaken man to 
repentance and prayer; he seeks to keep men in a false peace. 
Luk. 11. 21. Yet at other times he disturbs and afflicts men in. 
Body and Estate; as Scripture and experience shew. Among the 
Devices Satan useth to ruine man, one is to allure him into such 
a familiarity with him, that by Sorceries, Inchantments, 
Divinations, and such like, he may lead them Captive at his 
pleasure. This snare of his we are warned against. Deut. 18. 10, 
11. and in other Scriptures. This Sin of men hearkening after 
Satan in these ways is called Witchcraft; of which it is my 
purpose to treat: But first I shall speak something Historically 
what hath been done in New England, in prosecution of persons 
suspected of this Crime. Sect. 4. Several persons have been 

Page 17 

with and suffered for the Crime of Witchcraft in the Governments 
of the Massachusetts, New Haven, or Stratford and Connecticut, 
from the year 1646. to the year 1692. Sect. 5. The first was a 
Woman+ of Charlestown, Anno. 1647. or 48. She was suspected 
partly because that after some angry words passing between her 
and her Neighbours, some mischief befel such Neighbours in 
their Creatures, or the like: partly because some things supposed 
to be bewitched, or have a Charm upon them, being burned, she 
came to the fire and seemed concerned. The day of her 
Execution, I went in company of some Neighbours, who took 
great pains to bring her to confession and repentance. But she 
constantly professed her self innocent of that crime: Then one 
prayed her to consider if God did not bring this punishment upon 
her for some other crime, and asked, if she had not been guilty 
of Stealing many years ago; she answered, she had stolen 
something, but it was long since, and she had repented of it, and 
there was Grace enough in Christ to pardon that long agoe; but 
as for Witchcraft she was wholly free from it, and so she said 
unto her Death. Sect. 6. And ther that suffered on that account 

some time after, was a Dorchester Woman. And upon the day of 
her Execution 

Page 18 

Mr. Thompson Minister at Brantry, and J. P. her former Master 
took pains with her to bring her to repentance And she utterly 
denyed her guilt of Witchcraft; yet justifyed God for bringing her 
to that punishment: for she had when a single woman play'd the 
harlot, and being with Child used means to destroy the fruit of 
her body to conceal her sin and shame, and although she did 
noteffect it, yet she was a Murderer in the sight of God for her 
endeavours, and shewed great penitency for that sin; but owned 
nothing of the crime laid to her charge. Sect. 7. Another 
suffering in this kind was a Woman of Cambridge, against whom 
a principal evidence was a Watertown Nurse, who testsityed, that 
the said Kendal (so was the accused called) did bewitch to Death 
a Child of Goodman Genings of Watertown; for the said Kendal 
did make much of the Child, and then the Child was well, but 
quickly changed its colour and dyed in a few hours after. The 
Court took this evidence among others, the said Genings not 
knowing of it. But after Kendal was Executed (who also denyed 
her guilt to the Death,) Mr. Rich Brown knowing and hopeing 
better things of Kendal, asked bid Genings if they suspected her 
to bewitch their Child, they answered No. But they judged the 
true cause of the Childs Death to be this, viz. The Nurse had the 
night before carryed out the Child and 

Page 19 

kept it abroad in the Cold a long time, when the red gum was 
come out upon it, and the Cold had struck in the red gum, and 
this they judged the cause of the Childs death. And that said 
Kendal did come in that day and make much of the Child, but 
they apprehended no wrong to come to the Child by her. After 
this the said Nurse was put into Prison for Adultery, and there 
delivered of her base Child, and Mr. Brown went to her and told 
her, It was just with God to leave her to this wickedness, as a 
punishment for her Murdering goody Kendal by her false witness 
bearing. But the Nurse dyed in Prison, and so the matter was not 
farther inquired into. There was another Executed, of Boston 
Anno 1656. for that crime. And two or three of Springfield, one 
of which confessed; and said the occasion of her familiarity with 
Satan was this: She had lost a Child and was exceedingly 
discontented at it, and longed; Oh that she might see her Child 
again! And at last the Devil in likeness of her Child came to her 
bed side and talked with her, and asked to come into the bed to 
her, and she received it into the bed to her that night and 

several nights after, and so entred into covenant with Satan and 
became a Witch This was the only confessor in these times in 
this Government. Sect. 8. Another at Hartford, viz, Mary 

Page 20 

Johnson, mentioned in Remarkable Providences, P. 62, 63 
Confessed her self a Witch. Who upon discontent and 
sleuthfulness agreed with the Devil to do her work for her, and 
fetch up the Swine. And upon her immoderate laughter at the 
running of the Swine, as the Devil drove them, as she her self 
said, was suspected and upon examination confessed. I have 
also heard of a Girl at New Haven or Stratford, that confessed 
her guilt. But all others denyed it unto the death unless one 
Greensmith, at Hartford. Sect. 9. But it is not my purpose to give 
a full relation of all that have suffered for that Sin, or of all the 
particulars charged upon them, which probably is now 
impossible, many witnessing Viva voce, those particulars which 
were not fully recorded. But that I chiefly intend is to shew the 
principles formerly acted upon in Convicting of that Crime; which 
were such as these. 1. The first great principle laid down by a 
person Eminent for Wisdom, Piety and Learning was; That the 
Devil could not assume the shape of an innocent person in doing 
mischiefs unto mankind: for if the Lord should suffer him in this, 
he would subvert the course of humane Justice, by bringing men 
to suffer for what he did in their Shapes. 2. Witchcraft being an 
habitual Crime, on single witness to one Act of Witchcraft, and 

Page 21 

single witness to another such fact, made two witnesses against 
the Crime and the party suspected. 3. There was searching of 
the bodies of the suspected for such like teats, or spots (which 
writers speak of) called the Devils marks; and if found, these 
were accounted a presumption at least of guilt in those that had 
them. 4. I observed that people laid great weight upon this; 
when things supposed to be bewitched were burnt, and the 
suspected person came to the fire in the time of it. Although that 
Eminent person above said condemned this way of tryal, as 
going to the Devil to find the Devil. 5. If after anger between 
Neighbours mischief followed, this oft bred suspicion of 
Witchcraft in the matter. In fine, the presumptions and 
convictions used in former times were for substance the same 
which we may read of in Keeble of the Common Law, and in 
Bernard, and other Authors of that subject. Sect. 10. About 16 or 
17. years since was accused a Woman of Newbury, and upon her 
tryal the Jury brought her in Guilty. Yet the Governour Simon 

Bradstreet Esq and some of the Magistrates repreived her, being 
unsatisfyed in the Verdict upon these grounds. 1. They were not 
satisfyed that a Specter doing mischief in her likeness, should be 
imputed to her person, as a ground of guilt. 

Page 22 

2. They did not esteem one single witness to one fact, and 
another single witness to another fact, for two witnesses, against 
the person in a matter Capital. She being reprived, was carried 
to her own home, and her Husband, (who was esteemed a 
Sincere and understanding Christian by those that knew him) 
desired some Neighbour Ministers, of whom I was one, to meet 
together and discourse his Wife; the which we did: and her 
discourse was very Christian among us, and still pleaded her 
innocence as to that which was laid to her charge. We did not 
esteem it prudence for us to pass any definitive Sentance upon 
one under her circumstances, yet we inclined to the more 
charitable side. In her last Sickness she was in much darkness 
and trouble of Spirit, which occasioned a Judicious friend to 
examine her strictly, Whether she had been guilty of Witchcraft, 
but she said No: But the ground of her trouble was some 
impatient and passionate Speeches and Actions of hers while in 
Prison, upon the account of her suffering wrongfully; whereby 
she had provoked the Lord, by putting some contempt upon his 
word. And in fine, she sought her pardon and comfort from God 
in Christ, and dyed so far as I understood, praying to and resting 
upon God in Christ for Salvation. Sect. 11. The next that 
Suffered was an Irish 

Chapter 2 

Page 23 

Woman of Boston, suspected to bewitch John Goodwins Children, 
who upon herTryal did in Irish (as was testified by the 
Interpreters) confess her self guilty, and was condemned out of 
her own mouth; (as Christ saith, Luk. 19.22. Out of thine own 
mouth will I Judge thee.) The History of which is published by 
Mr. Cotton Mather, (and attested by the other Ministers of 
Boston and Charlstown,) in his Book, Entituled, Memorable 
Providences, Printed Anno 1689. Thus far of the History of 
Witches before the year, 1692. CHAPTER II. I. In the latter end 
of the year 1691. Mr. Samuel Paris, Pastor of the Church in 
Salem-Village, had a Daughter of Nine, and a Neice of about 
Eleven years of Age, sadly Afflicted of they knew not what 
Distempers; and he made his application to Physitians, yet still 
they grew worse: And at length one Physitian gave his opinion, 

that they were under an Evil Hand. This the Neighbours quickly 
took up, and concluded they were bewitched. He had also an 
Indian Man servant, and his Wife who afterwards confessed, that 
without the knowledge of their Master or Mistress, they had 
taken some of the Afflicted persons Urine, and mixing it with 
meal had made a Cake, and baked it, to find out the Witch, as 
they said. 

Page 24 

After this, the Afflicted persons cryed out of the Indian Woman, 
named Tituba, that she did pinch, prick, and grievously torment 
them, and that they saw her here and there, where no body else 
could. Yea they could tell where she was, and what she did, 
when out of their humane sight. These Children were bitten and 
pinched by invisible agents; their arms, necks, and backs turned 
this way and that way, and returned back again, so as it was 
impossible for them to do of themselves, and beyond the power 
of any Epileptick Fits, or natural Disease to effect. Sometimes 
they were taken dumb, their mouths stopped, their throats 
choaked, their limbs wracked and tormented so as might move 
an heart of stone, to sympathize with them, with bowels or 
compassion for them. I will not enlarge in the description of their 
cruel Sufferings, because they were in all things afflicted as bad 
as John Goodwins Children at Boston, in the year 1689. So that 
he that will read Mr. Mathers Book of Memorable Providences, 
page 3. and c may Read part of what these Children, and 
afterwards sundry grown persons suffered by the hand of Satan, 
as Salam Village, and parts adjacent, Anno 1691, 2 Yet there 
was more in these Sufferings, than in those at Boston, by pins 
invisibly stuck into their flesh pricking with Irons. (As in part 
published in a Book Printed 1693. viz. The Wonders of the 
Invisible World) 

Page 25 

Mr. Paris seeing the distressed condition of his Family, desired 
the presence of some Worthy Gentlemen of Salem, and some 
Neighbour Ministers to consult together at his House; who when 
they came, and had enquired diligently into the Sufferings of the 
Afflicted, concluded they were preternatural, and feared the hand 
of Satan was in them. II. The advice given to Mr. Paris by them 
was, that he should sit still and wait upon the Providence of God 
to see what time might discover; and to be much in prayer for 
the discovery of what was yet secret. They also Examined Tituba, 
who confessed the making a Cake, as is above mentioned, and 
said her Mistress in her own Country was a Witch, and had 
taught her some means to be used for the discovery of a Witch 

and for the prevention of being bewitched, and c. But said that 
she her self was not a Witch. III. Soon after this, there were two 
or three private Fasts at the Ministers House, one of which was 
kept by sundry Neighbour Ministers, and after this, another in 
Publick at the Village, and several days afterwards of publick 
Humiliation, during these molestations, not only there, but in 
other Congregations for them. And one General Fast by Order of 
the General Court, observed throughout the 

Page 26 

Golony to seek the Lord that he would rebuke Satan, and be a 
light unto his people in this day of darkness. But, I return to the 
History of these troubles. In a short time after other persons who 
were of age to be witnesses, were molested by Satan, and in 
their fits cryed out upon Tituba and Goody 0. and S. G. that they 
or Specters in their Shapes did grievously torment them; 
hereupon some of their Village Neighbours complained to the 
Magistrates at Salem, desiring they would come and examine the 
afflicted and accused together; the which they did: the effect of 
which examination was, that Tituba confessed she was a 
Witch, and that she with the two others accused did torment and 
bewitch the complainers, and that these with two others whose 
names she knew not, had their Witchmeeting together; relating 
the times when and places where they met, with many other 
circumstances to be seen at large. Upon this the said Tituba and 
0. and S. G. were committed to Prison upon suspicion of acting 
Witchcraft. After this the said Tituba was again examined in 
Prison, and owned her first confession in all points, and then was 
her self afflicted and complained of her fellow Witches 
tormenting of her, for her confession, and accusing them, and 
being searched by a Woman, she was found to have upon her 
body the marks of the Devils wounding of her. 

Page 27 

IV. Here were these things rendred her confession credible. (1.) 
That at this examination she answered every question just as 
she did at the first. And it was thought that if she had feigned 
her confession, she could not have remembred her answers so 
exactly. A lyar we say, had need of a good memory, but truth 
being always consistent with it self is the same to day as it was 
yesterday. (2.) She seemed very penitent for her Sin in 
covenanting with the Devil. (3.) She became a sufferer her self, 
and as she said for her confession. (4.) Her confession agreed 
exactly (which was afterwards verified in the other confessors) 
with the accusations of the afflicted. Soon after these afflicted 
persons complained of other persons afflicting of them in their 

fits, and the number of the afflicted and accused began to 
increase. And the success of Tituba's confession encouraged 
those in Authority to examine others that were suspected, and 
the event was, that more confessed themselves guilty of the 
Crimes they were suspected for. And thus was this matter driven 
on. V. I observed in the prosecution of these affairs, that there 
was in the Justices, Judges and others concerned, a 
conscientious endeavour to do the thing that was right. And to 
that end they consulted the Presidents of former times and 
precepts laid down by Learned Writers about 

Page 28 

Witchcraft. As Keeble on the Common Law, Chapt. Conjuration, 
(an Author approved by the Twelve Judges of our Nation.) Also 
Sir. Mathew Hales tryal of Witches, Printed Anno 1682. Glanvils 
Collection of sundry tryals in England and Ireland, in the years 
1658, 61, 63, 64, and 81. Bernards guide to Jurymen, Baxter 
and R. Burton, their Histories about Witches and their 
discoveries. Cotton Mather's Memorable Providences relating to 
Witchcrafts, Printed Anno 1689. VI. But that which chiefly carried 
on this matter to such an height, was the increasing of 
confessors till they amounted to near about Fifty: and four or six 
of them upon their tryals owned their guilt of this crime, and 
were condemned for the same, but not Executed. And many of 
the confessors confirmed their confessions with very strong 
circumstances: As their exact agreement with the accusations of 
the afflicted; their punctual agreement with their fellow 
confessors; their relating the times when they covenanted with 
Satan, and the reasons that moved them thereunto; their Witch 
meetings, and that they had their mock Sacraments of Baptism 
and the Supper, in some of them; their signing the Devils book: 
and some shewed the Scars of the wounds which they said were 
made to fetch blood with, to sign the Devils book; and some said 
they had 

Page 29 

Imps to suck them, and shewed Sores raw where they said they 
were sucked by them. VII. I shall give the Reader a tast of these 
things in a few Instances. The Afflicted complained that the 
Spectres which vexed them, urged them to set their Hands to a 
Book represented to them (as to them it seemed) with 
threatnings of great torments, if they signed not, and promises 
of ease if they obeyed. Among these D. H. did as she said (which 
sundry others confessed afterwards) being overcome by the 
extremity of her pains, sign the Book presented, and had the 
promised ease; and immediately upon it aSpectre in her Shape 

afflicted another person, and said, I have signed the Book and 
have ease, now do you sign, and so shall you have ease. And 
one day this afflicted person pointed at a certain place in the 
room, and said, there is D. H. upon which a man with his Rapier 
struck at the place, though he saw no Shape; and the Afflicted 
called out, saying, you have wounded her side, and soon after 
the afflicted person pointed at another place, saying, there she 
is; whereupon a man struck at the place, and the afflicted said, 
you have given her a small prick about the eye. Soon after this, 
the said D H. confessed her self to be made a Witch by signing 
the Devils Book as above said; and declared 

Page 30 

that she had afflicted the Maid that complained of her, and in 
doing of it had received two wounds by a Sword or Rapier, a 
small one about the eye, which she shewed to the Magistrates, 
and a bigger on the side of which she was searched by a discreet 
woman, who reported, that D. H had on her side the sign of a 
wound newly healed. This D H. confessed that she was at a 
Witch Meeting at Salem Village, where were many persons that 
she named, some of whom were in Prison then or soon after 
upon suspicion of Witchcraft: And the said G. B. preached to 
them, and such a Woman was their Deacon, and there they had 
a Sacrament. VIII. Several others after this confessed the same 
things with D H. In particular Goody F said (Inter alia) that she 
with two others (one of whom acknowledged the same) Rode 
from Andover to the same Village Witch meeting upon a stick 
above ground, and that in the way the stick brake, and gave the 
said F. a fall: whereupon, said she, I got a fall and hurt of which 
I am still sore. I happened to be present in Prison when this F. 
owned again her former confession to the Magistrates. And then 
I moved she might be further questioned about some particulars: 
It was answered, the Magistrates had not time to stay longer; 
but I should have liberty to Examine her far 

Page 31 

ther by my self; The which thing I did; and I asked her if she 
rode to the Meeting on a Stick; she said, yea. I enquired what 
she did for Victuals; she answered, that she carried Bread and 
Cheese in her pocket, and that she and the Andover Company 
came to the Village before the Meeting began, and sat down 
together under a tree and eat their food, and that she drank 
water out of a Brook to quench her thirst. And that the Meeting 
was upon a plain grassy place, by which was a Carr path, and 
sandy ground in the path, in which were the tracks of Florses 
feet. And she also told me how long they were going and 

returning. And some time after told me, she had some trouble 
upon her spirit, and when I enquired what? she said, she was in 
fear that G. B. and M. C. would kill her; for they appeared unto 
her (in Spectre, for their persons were kept in other Rooms in 
the Prison) and brought a sharp pointed iron like a spindle, but 
four square, and threatned to stab her to death with it; because 
she had confessed her Witchcraft, and told of them, that they 
were with her, and that M. C. above named was the person that 
made her a Witch. About a month after the said F. took occasion 
to tell me the same Story of her fears that G. B. and E. C. would 
kill her, and that the thing was much for her Spirits. 

Page 32 

IX. It was not long before M. L. Daughter of said F confessed that 
she rode with her Mother to the said Witch Meeting, and 
confirmed the substance of her Mothers Confession. At another 
time, M L. junior the Grand Daughter, aged about seventeen 
years, confesseth the substance of what her Grand mother and 
Mother had related, and declareth, that when they, with E. C. 
rode on a stick or pole in the Air, She the said Grand-Daughter 
with R C. Rode upon another; (and she said R. C. acknowledged 
the same) and that they sat their hands to the Devils Book. And 
(in ter alia) said, 0 Mother, why did you give me to the Devil? 
twice or thrice over. The Mother said, she was sorry at the heart 
for it, it was through that wicked one. Her Daughter bid her 
repent and call upon God: And said Oh Mother, your wishes are 
now come to pass, for how often have you wished that the Devil 
would fetch me away alive? And then said Oh! my heart will 
break within me; Then she wept bitterly, crying out, 0 Lord 
comfort me and bring out all the Witch's And she said to her 
Grandmother, 0 Grandmother, why did you give me to the 
Devil? Why did you perswade me, 0 Grandmother do not deny it. 
Then the Grandmother gave account of several things about their 
confederates and acts of Witchcraft too long to rehearse. 

Chapter 3 

Page 33 

CHAPTER III. Nextly I will insert the Confession of a man about 
Forty years of Age, W. B. which he wrote himself in Prison and 
sent to the Magistrates, to confirm his former Confession to 
them, viz God having called me to Confess my sin and Apustasy 
in that fall in giving the Devil advantage over me appearing to 
me like a Black, in the evening to set my hind to his Book, as I 
have owned to my shame He told me that I should not want so 
doing. At Salem Village, there being a little off the Meeting- 

House, about and hundred five Blades, some with Rapiers by 
their side, which was called and might be more for ought I know 
by B and Bu. and the Trumpet sounded, and Bread and Wine 
which they called the Sacrament, but I had none; being carried 
over all on a Stick, never being at any other Meeting. I being at 
Cart a Saturday last, all the day, of Hay and English Corn, the 
Devil brought my Shape to Salem, and did afflict M. S. and R F. 
by ditching my hand; and a Sabbath day my Shape afflicted A. M 
and at night afflicted M S. and A. M. E. I. and A. F. have been my 
Enticers to this great abomination, as one have owned and 
charged her and her Sister with the same. And the design was to 
destroy Salem Village, and to begin at the Ministers House, and to 
destroy the Church of God, and to it up Satans Kingdom, and 
then all will be well. 

Page 34 

And now I hope God in some meaesure has made me something 
sensible of my sin and apostasy, begging pardon of God, and of 
the Honourable Magistrates and all Gods people, hoping and 
promising by the help of God, to set to my heart and hand to do 
what in me lyeth to destroy such wicked worship, humbly 
begging the prayers of all Gods People for me, I may walk 
humbly under this great affliction, and that I may procure to my 
self, the sure mercies of Divid and the blessing of Abraham. 
Concerning this Confession. (1) Noteiz was his own free act in 
Prison. (2) He faith the Devil like a Black] This he had before 
explained to be like a Black man (3) That on a certain day was 
heard in the Air the sound of a Trumpet at Salem Village nigh the 
Meeting House, and upon all enquiry it could not be found that 
any mortal man did found it. (4) The three persons he saith the 
Devil in his Shape afflicted, had been as to the times and manner 
afflicted as he confesseth (5) That E. I. confessed as much as W. 
B chargeth her with. (6) Many others confessed a Witch Meeting, 
or Witch meetings at the Village as well as he. Note also that 
these Confessors did not only witness against themselves, but 
against one another; and against many if not all those that 
Suffered for that Crime. As for example when G. B was Tryed, 
seven or eight of these Confessors severally called, said, they 
knew the said B. and saw him at a Witch Meeting 

Page 35 

at the Village, and heard him exhort the Company to pull down 
the Kingdom of God, and set up the Kingdom of the Devil. He 
denied all, yet said he justified the Judges and Jury in 
Condemning of him; because there were so many positive 
witnesses against him: But said he dyed by false Witnesses. I 

seriously spake to one that witnessed (of his Exhorting at the 
Witch Meeting at the Village) saying to her; you are one that 
bring this man to Death, if you have charged any thing upon him 
that is not true, recal it before it be too late, while he is alive. 

She answered me, she had nothing to charge her self with, upon 
that account. M. C. had to witness against her, two or three of 
her own Children, and several of her Neighbours that said they 
were in confederacy with her in their Witchcraft. A. F. Had three 
of her Children, and some of the Neighbours, her own Sister, and 
a Servant, who confessed themselves Witches, and said, she was 
in confederacy with them. But alas, I am weary with relating 
particulars; those that would see more of this kind, let them 
have recourse to the Records. By these things you see how this 
matter was carried on, vix. chiefly by the complaints and 
accusations of the Afflicted, Bewitched ones, as it was supposed, 
and then by the Confessions of the Accused, condemning 

Page 36 

and others. Yet experience shewed that the more there were 
apprehended, the more were still Afflicted by Satan, and the 
number of Confessors increasing, did but in crease the number of 
the Accused, and the Executing some, made way for the 
apprehending of others; for still the Afflicted complained of being 
tormented by new objects as the former were removed. So that 
those that were concerned, grew amazed at the numbers and 
quality of the persons accused and feared that Satan by his wiles 
had inwrapped innocent persons under the imputation of that 
Crime. And at last it was evidently seen that there must be a 
stop put, or the Generation of the Children of God would fall 
under that condemnation Henceforth therefore the Juries 
generally acquitted such as were Tried, fearing they had gone too 
far before. And Sir William Phips Governour, Reprieved all that 
were Condemned, even the Confessors, as well as others. And 
the Confessors generally fell off from their Confessions; some 
saying, they remembred nothing of what they said; others said 
they had belied themselves and others. Some brake Prison and 
ran away, and were not strictly searched after, some acquitted, 
some dismissed and one way or other all that had been accused 
were set or left at liberty. And although had the times been calm, 

Chapter 4 

Page 37 

condition of the Confessors might have called for a melius 
inquirendum; yet considering the combustion and confusion this 
matter had brought us unto; it was thought safer to under do 
than over do, especially in matters Capital, where what is once 
compleated cannot be retrieved: but what is left at one time, 
may be corrected at another, upon a review and clearer 
discovery of the state of the Case. Thus this matter issued 
somewhat abruptly. CHAPTER IV. Here was generally 
acknowledged to be an error (at least on the one hand) but the 
Querie is, Wherein? A. 1. I have heard it said, That the 
Presidents in England were not so exactly followed, because in 
those there had been previous quarrels and threatnings of the 
Afflicted by those that were Condemned for Witchcraft; but here, 
say they, not so. To which I answer. 1. In many of these cases 
there had been antecedent personal quarrels, and so occasions 
of revenge; for some of those Condemned, had been suspected 
by their Neighbours several years, because after quarrelling with 
their Neighbours, evils had befallen those Neighbours. As may be 
seen in the Printed Tryals of S. M. and B. B. and others: See 
Wonders of the Invisible World, Page 105. to 137. And 

Page 38 

there were other like Cases not Printed. 2. Several confessors 
acknowledged they engaged in the quarrels of other their 
confederates to afflict persons. As one Timothy Swan suffered 
great things by Witchcrafts, as he supposed and restifyed. And 
several of the confessors said they did so torment him for the 
sake of one of their partners who had some offence offer'd her 
by the said Swan And others owned they did the like in the 
behalf of some of their confederates. 3. There were others that 
confessed their fellowship in these works of darkness, was to 
destroy the Church of God (as is above in part rehearsed) which 
is a greater piece of revenge, then to be avenged upon one 
particular person. 2. It may be queried then, How doth it appear 
that there was a going too far in this affair? A 1. By the numbers 
of the persons accused which at length increased to about an 
hundred, and it cannot be imagined that in a place of so much 
knowledge, so many in so small a compass of Land should so 
abominably leap into the Devils lap at once. 2. The quality of 
several of the accused was such as did bespeak better things, 
and things that accompany Salvation. Persons whose blameless 
and holy lives before did testify for them. Persons that had taken 
great pains to bring up their Children in the nurture and 
admonition of the Lord: Such as we had Charity for, as for our 

Page 39 

own Souls: and Charity is a Christian duty commended to us. 1 
Cor. 13. Chapt. Col. 3. 14. and in many other Scriptures. 3. The 
number of the afflicted by Satan dayly increased, till about Fifty 
persons were thus vexed by the Devil. This gave just ground to 
suspect some mistake, which gave advantage to the accuser of 
the Brethren to make a breach upon us. 4. It was considerable 
that Nineteen were Executed, and all denyed the Crime to the 
Death and some of them were knowing persons, and had before 
this been accounted blameless livers. And it is not to be 
imagined, but that if all had been guilty, some would have had 
so much tenderness as to seek Mercy for their Souls in the way 
of Confession and sorrow for such a Sin. And as for the 
condemned confessors at the Bar, (they being reprieved) we had 
no experience whether they would stand to their Self- 
condemning confessions, when they came to dye. 5. When this 
prosecution ceased, the Lord so chained up Satan, that the 
afflicted grew presently well. The accused are generally quiet, 
and for five years since, we have no such molestations by them. 
6 It sways much with me that I have since heard and read, of 
the like mistakes in other places. As in Suffolk in England about 
the year 1645. was such a prosecution, until they 

Page 40 

saw that unless they put a stop it would bring all into blood and 
confusion. The like hath been in France, fill 900 were put to 
Death. And in some other places the like; So that N. England is 
not the only place circumvented by the wiles of the wicked and 
wisely Serpent in this kind. Wierus de Praestigiis Demonum, p. 
678 Relates, That an Inquisitor in the Subilpine Valleys, enquired 
after Women Witches, and consumed above an hundred in the 
Flames, and daily made new offerings to Vulcan of those that 
needed Flelebore more than Fire Until the Country people rose 
and by force of Arms bindred him, and refer the matter to the 
Bishop. Their Flusbands men of good Faith affirmed that in that 
very time they said of them, that they played and danced under 
a tree, they were in bed with them. R. Burton of Witches and c. 
p. 158 Saith,That in Chelmsford in Essex, Anno 1645 were Thirty 
tryed at once before Judge Coniers, and Fourteen of them 
hanged, and an hundred more contained in several Prisons in 
Suffolk and Essex. If there were an Error in the proceedings in 
other places, and in N. England, it must be in the principles 
proceeded upon in prosecuting the suspected, or in the 
misapplication of the principles made use of. Now as to the case 
at Salem, I conceive it proceeded from some mistaken principles 
made use of; for the evincing whereof. I shall instance some 
principles made 

Chapter 5 

Page 41 

use of here, and in other Countrys also, which I find defended by 
learned Authors writing upon that Subject. CHAPTER. V. 1. It 
hath been believed that Satan cannot assume the Shape of an 
Innocent person, and in that Shape doe mischief to the bodies, 
or estates of mankind. This maxim hath been as the Primum 
mobile, turning the wheel of accusation upon persons 
condemned for this Crime in England and else where, (so far as 
my reading goeth.) See Baxter and Glanvil, and other Authors on 
this Subject. For the inference drawn from hence was, That when 
a person suffers by Diabolical agents and is supposed to be 
bewitched, and in their sufferings see a Spectre in the exact 
image of any person, that person so represented must be 
accounted the Witch. Keeble on the Common Law, gives this for 
a ground to suspect a person for a Witch. Their Apparition to the 
sick party in their sits and c. In opposition to this Maxim, I shall 
lay down three Propositions. 1. Satan may and often hath 
represented to the Imaginations of persons under bodily 
afflictions by him, the shape or image of innocent persons 
hurting them. 2. Satan can represent himself to mankind in a 
bodily visible likeness. 

Page 42 

3. Satans representing himself to the fight of men in the shape 
of innocent persons doing mischief to man, may be without 
prejudice to or perverting of Gods Ordinance of Civil Justice. 1. 
Satan may represent himself to the Imaginations and c. I say 
Imagination; for the Apparition of a person to the sick (or 
obsessed) person in their sits, may be often times only to their 
Imaginations. Some of our afflicted persons have when they 
come out of their fits declared, that in them they saw an army of 
men in rank and file; other times the representation of heavenly 
beauty, white men; and then again fire and hellish torments. 

Now all these might be only the working of their Phantasies, by 
Satans presentations to Imagination, and the like may be of other 
things and persons. Yea some such have complained of their own 
Parents seeming to them to torment them, which might be the 
abuse of Phantasie. Yea persons not under such Diabolical 
impressions, may by some disease or sores and vapours thence 
ascending, have the Images of persons represented to their 
Imagination. Mr. John Phillips of Boston, told me, That be had a 
sore swelled Legg, and lying in the warm bed with Eyes open, he 
saw, as he thought, Women in silk cloathing come to his bed 

side, and spake to them: but a man that stood by said there 
were no Women; whereupon he suspected the man of Conjuring 

Page 43 

tricks; which moved him to send for a Physician three Miles off 
(for it was nigh Black point) and all the time the Messenger was 
gone, was he haunted with these Women, as they seemed to 
him. The Physitian sent word, that the vapours ascending from 
his sore Legg had caused a water in his Eyes, and disturbance in 
his Braines, by means whereof he was troubled with such 
Visions; and sending an eye water to wash his eyes with, and a 
cordial to take inwardly; upon the use of these, this disturbance 
vanished in half a quarter of an hour. If a disease may do this, 
what may Satan working upon bodily distempers and vapours 
impose upon the Imaginations? 2. Prop. Satan can assume a 
bodily likeness and represent himself therein to mans bodily 
eyes, that is, if the Lord permit him. 1. He that could make a fire 
in the Air to come down upon Jobs Sheep, and c. Job 1. 16. Can 
make a visible Shape and appear, and act in it as he did in that 
fire to consume Servants and Sheep: But so did Satan. 

Therefore. 2. He that could by Pharaohs Sorcerers represent to 
him Serpents, Froggs and Blood; and to Saul dead Samuels 
Shape; can assume a bodily likeness, and c. but so did Satan, as 
Exod. 7. and 8. Chap. 1 Sam. 28 of which more hereafter, and c. 
3. Our Saviour signifies that a Spirit may appear in likeness of a 
man. Math. 14 26, 27. v. compar'd with Luk. 24. 

36,37,38,39,40. For, (1.) The disciples supposed the Person of 

Page 44 

to be a Spirit. Phantasma, that is a Spectre. Pneuma, a Spirit i. 
e. in bodily likeness, which shews they had such an apprehension, 
that a Spirit could assume a visible bodily likeness. (2.) Christ in 
answer doth not say, there can be no such visible representation; 
but seeks to satisfy them, by convincing them that it is himself: 
And therefore shews them his hands and feet. Luk. 24. thereby 
to convince them that he is not a Spirit. (3.) Christ speaks of a 
Spirit in general, which comprehends an evil Spirit as well as a 
good one. 4. That Satan appeared to our Saviour when tempted, 
Mat. 4. 3. at the end of forty days in a visible Shape, I prove by 
these arguments. 1. It's said Christ was tempted of Satan all the 
forty days, Mark 1. 13. and Luk. 4. 2. yet Mat. 4. 2, 3. It's said 
when he had fasted fourty days, and was hungry, the Tempter 
came to him (prosethion auto) which implies another manner of 
coming to him, and tempting of him, than had been the fourty 
days before, and now he spake. Eipen. Mat. 4, 3, 6, 9. Legei. 

These expressions note Satan speaking with an audible voice, 
which implies a visible bodily shape speaking. 2. He said these 
Stones. Mat. 4 and Luke 4. This Stone, as if he had pointed with 
the finger, or bodily Organ at some peculiar Stone or Stones, as 
a corporeal agent. 3. It is said, Satan taketh Christ up into the 
Holy City, setteth him on the Pinacle, taketh 

Page 45 

him up into an high Mountain, and sheweth him, brought him to 
Jerusalem. These words Taking, Bringing, Setting, (in Greek, 
[Greek omitted]) are words which are used to note the actings of 
one bodily agent to another usually. 5. Satan sheweth to the Man 
Christ, all the Kingdoms of the World, and the Glory of them, in a 
moment of time (En stigme Chronou) in one poynt of time. Now 
we know the World is round, and that a man can see but a small 
part of it at once. Therefore that which Satan set before the eyes 
of Christ, was not all the Kingdoms of the World themselves, but 
an image and representation of them, and of their Glory, which 
Satan had framed. And of these might Satan say, as, Luk. 4 6. 

All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is 
delivered unto me, and to whomsoever I will, I give it. If then 
Satan can make an Image of the Kingdoms of the World, and of 
their glory which is the greater, then can he make the Image of 
a man, which is the lesser, and appear to man in such an image: 
And so appearing can speak and act in and by it as he spake and 
acted of old by the Serpent unto Eve, and by the Possessed in 
the Gospel. Whether Satan makes such a visible body by 
gathering the rays called Species Visibiles, which flow from every 
body, whereby its shadow is represented in a Looking-glass and 
Water, or 

Page 46 

as the rays of the Sun invisibly scattered in the Air are by a 
burning glass contracted and condensed so as to kindle a Fire, or 
by other means, I determine not. But History as well as the 
Scripture abundantly testifie, that such Spirits, or Aieral Bodies 
have appeared unto men, called Apparitions or Ghosts. See 
Increase Mathers Remarkable Providences, Baxter of Apparitions, 
and other Authors. I have also spoken with very credible persons 
of discretion and piety that have told me they have seen such 
Apparitions when in their perfect health and senses. But I spare 
to enlarge. 2. Proposition is, Satan may represent himself doing 
mischief in the shape of an innocent person, without prejudice 
to, or perverting of Gods Ordinance of Civil Justice. 1. If Satan 
(can assume the likeness of a man, as is above proved) then it's 
alike easy in it self for him to personate an innocent, as a guilty 

person, if we look to his natural power: For according to natural 
causes by which he worketh, ones Image is as easily formed as 
the others. And no doubt he will sometimes personate the 
innocent, unless the Lord restrain him. 2. That Satan hath so 
done is proved by Mr. Increase Mather, in his Cases of 
Conscience, Printed Anno 1693. by several Histories. To which I 
shall add one out of Wierus de Prestigus, and c. p. 661. 

Page 47 

Among us (saith he) A Pretor went to a Conjurer, and by his 
discovery apprehended many Women, and had them burned 
(that is for Witches) at last the Conjurer told him, be would shew 
him one Witch more if he would not take it amiss, and 
impeached the Pretors Wife, and prefixed an hour, when he 
should see her in a Dance with other Witches. The Pretor 
consents and calls his friends and kindred to feast with his Wife 
at that time, and rising from the Table, commands his Wife and 
Friends to sit still at the Table till he returned. Being carried by 
the Conjurer where he pleased, he shewed him a Company of 
Witches is their Dances and unlawful pleasures, and the Pretors 
Wife with them. Then returning home, he found his friends in the 
same order he left them, and his Wife with them, and by the 
testimony of all present, found upon studious enquiry that his 
Wife had kept her place in his absence. He opened the mater to 
them repenting for punishing the innocent. Satan personating 
the innocent in doing mischief is no prejudice to Civil Justice, if it 
can be found out that the mischief so done is the act of Satan, 
and not the act of the person represented. For what wickedness 
Satan doth, Satan shall be judged for, and what man doth, man 
must be judged for. Every one shall bear his own burthen. Gal 6 
5. And Satans wickedness herein may be found, (most 
commonly, if not always) by such means as these, if thorough 
care and diligence be used. 

Page 48 

1. If it can be proved that the party represented was in another 
place at that time. As was the case of the Pretors Wife above 
mentioned. 2. If when the afflicted complain they see John or 
Thomas upon them, pinching, or hurting of them or others, can 
neither see any person there, nor by feeling perceive any flesh or 
bones, they may conclude there's not the very person 
complained of, but either an abused Imagination, or the Devil 
personating to the afflicted the person complained of. For Christs 
rule is, Luk 24. 39 A Spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me 
have. 3. If the supposed person come into the room through the 
Key hole, or when there is no place open for a person to come in 

by, then conclude, its not the person but the Devil seen there. A 
Spectre can come in by a pin-hole: but Satan cannot bring in the 
body of a man or woman in at such a place: for if so then Satan 
could work a miracle properly so called, which he cannot do. 
When Christ came bodily into the midst of the room the doors 
being shut. Joh 20 19, 20. It was a miracle beyond all Satans 
signs and lying wonders. The Gospel is confirmed by Gods 
testimony with signs and wonders and divers miracles. Such 
Satan cannot do, for then he could subvert our Gospels 
confirmation. 4. When a supposed person is seen in their 

Page 49 

full proportion and then changed into the form of another 
Creature, as a Cat, and c. This is a Spectre not the person. The 
turning Lots Wife into a pillar of Salt was a proper Miracle beyond 
the power of Devil or Angel of themselves to perform. But a 
Spectre can change its shape like the Wind under Ice sunning 
upon the water. This well weighed will confute many fond Stories 
that have passed, that such a Woman is a Witch, for she was 
seen in her full proportion, and then turned into a Cat, and back 
at last into a Woman; for all this was either a phantasie in the 
brains, or a Phantasma before the Eyes 5 If a person (or so 
esteemed) pass by us on the soft Snow, or dirt, and leave no 
footsteps behind them, this is to be esteemed a Spectre, and not 
the real person, unless the person were carried by Satan in the 
Air. This was brought for an Evidence against a Woman, that she 
was seen nigh Malden in a Moonshiny night passing on the Snow, 
and left no footsteps behind her; when she might be in her 
House at Newbury, and either the Phantasie of the Witness was 
abused, or a Spectre passed by him in her Image. Yet if it had 
been her person so carried by Satan, this would not prove her a 
Witch, unless her consent were given to it. Goodwins Children 
were carried in the Air by Satan, as saith Memorable 
Providences. P. 14, 15. 

Page 50 

6. If the prints of biting of teeth, pinching with fingers, pricking 
with pins or irons be made on the Bodies of the Afflicted, and no 
hand, mouth or Body can be seen or felt to do it, this is to be 
imputed to Satan, and not to a real person doing of it. By these 
or such like means, due circumspection being used, when Satan 
personates the innocent, his fallacy and malice may be 
discovered, at least ordinarily. Yet if the Lord should suffer Satan 
so to act, and not be discovered after all means used to find the 
fallacy (which I never yet read or heard he did) this must be 
reckoned among the unsearchable acts of Divine Soveraignty, 

which men may humbly admire; but not make rules upon such a 
supposal for humane judicature to proceed upon. These premises 
considered we may infer, That if Satan may personate an 
innocent party to one tormented by him; then if the Lord permit 
it, to two, yea to ten And if once he may do so, then twice, yea 
twenty times, if suffered, and yet the person so represented be 
innocent. And all the danger of injustice being done to that 
innocent party ariseth not from Satans acting, so much as from 
mans mistaken faith and suspicion about Satans act. Hence then 
we may confute a vulgar error of people, that will conclude, that 
such a Woman is, or was a Witch, for she was seen in 

Chapter 6 

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the Air one night flying Southward, another time to a Vessel, and 
other times up into the Country. When all this time the Devil 
thro' Divine permission either did it, or imposed upon the 
Imaginations of the Spectators. And here we may take notice, 
that a true faith is so pleasing to the Lord, that he doth great 
things for his Servants, for their faiths sake; so that Christ saith, 
Mat. 8. 13 As thou hast believed, so be it done unto thee. All 
things are possible to him that believeth. Great is thy faith, be it 
unto thee, as thou wilt. Thy faith hath made thee whole. Mark 9. 
25. and 10 5.2. and 15. 28. Why may not a false faith in these 
matters provoke the Lord to say unto us, As you believe, be it 
unto you? And let Satan loose to do strange things as the 
Accuser of the Brethren, to mislead them to accuse one another. 
CHAPTER VI. Another Principle much insisted on, is; That the 
Devil when he doth harm to persons in their Body or Estate, it is 
(at least most commonly, generally and frequently) by the help 
of our Neighbour: That is, some Witch or Conjurer, or such like in 
Covenant with the Devil. Sir Matthew Hale, in his Printed 
Observations upon the Tryal of those. Witches he Condemned, 
(Printed Anno 1682.) draws this inference from hence, That 

Page 52 

the Devil when he hurts the Body or Goods of men, is in some 
sort subject to Humane Justice, though not in himself, yet in his 
Covenant Servants, by whom he is set a work to do such 
mischiefs. The unsoundness of this principle appeareth by the 
Scripture instances of Satans so afflicting man when we read of 
no Witch to set him on work. As, 1. When God let Satan loose to 
try Jobs patience, Job 1. and 2 Chap. 2. When Satan bound the 
Body of a Daughter of Abraham eighteen years. 3. When Satan 
tryed the affections of the Gergesens, and was Gods Instrument 

to punish their Worldliness by drowning their Swine, who ran 
violently down a steep place (as if they had been bewitched, 
according to the opinion of many now a days) into the Sea, being 
driven of the Devils. 4 We have many Instances of the possessed 
with the unclean Spirits that were tormented and vexed by 
Satan, to quicken men to prayer, Mat. 17. 21. and to shew 
Christs power. 5. Some by their own presumptuous dealing with 
Satan, have given him power, or at least opportunity to strip and 
wound them; as the Exorcists, Acts 19 13. and c. Seeing then we 
have so many instances of Satans afflicting without Witches help, 
and no clear Scripture instance of his afflicting 

Page 53 

mankind in Body, or Estate by Witchcraft; It's unsafe to conclude 
generally that those that are under Diabolical molestations are 
bewitched. For when persons are perswaded their Relations are 
bewitched, they presently enquire, who is the Witch? and who 
should they fasten their suspicions upon, but on these that the 
Afflicted cry out against in their fits? Q. But is it not evident, that 
the Afflicted at Salem Village, and parts adjacent, Anno 1691, 2. 
were Bewitched? A. Whether those Sufferings by Satan 
proceeded at first from Witchcraft or no, I shall leave to a further 
disquisition. But as for the most of those Sufferers, I conceive 
they were such as in the Gospel are called, Daimonizomenoi. 

Mat. 4 24. Daemoniaci Daemoniacks: I do not mean in that 
degree of Internal Possession, as those out of whom the Spirits 
were cast out. Mat. 8. 16. But with such a degree of external 
possession or obsession of Satan, which rendred them like the 
Demoniacks mentioned, in many things. 1. As they were 
grievously vexed with the Devil. ([Greek omitted].) as the 
Damsel. Matt 15. 22. compare this with Mark 7. 25. She had an 
unclean Spirit. So were ours vexed with invisible agents, biting, 
pricking, pinching and vexing of them. I will not say but among 
so many thus Suffering, some of them at some time might 

Page 54 

counterfeit part of their Sufferings, and it might be from Satans 
policy to intangle the whole affair. But for the most part they 
were as those we read of, Luk. 6. 18. Vexed with unclean Spirits. 
2. We read, Mat. 17. 15. of them that ofttimes fell into the fire 
and into the water, being Lunatick; but were cast this way and 
that by all Evil Spirit. Mark 9, 17, to 30. So were some of ours by 
an evil spirit transported from place to place, and in danger of 
being burnt, or drowned, but that Satan was restrained, as in 
case above said The possessed man, Mark. 5. 4. had than 
humane strength in breaking fetters and chains. So some of 

these in their fits performed that which was above their own 
strength. 4 The possessed damsel, Act. 16. 16 did by the Devil 
soothsay; that is, discover secrets in a prophetical way: (she did 
manteuein.) So some of these did by the Devils means tell of 
persons and things, absent and future, as when such another fit 
should come again, and c. where such a person absent was, and 
what he did insomuch that had they been Sui juris, person free 
from Diabolical obsession, and overpowering force, they might 
justly have been questioned for dealing with a familiar Spirit. But 
the force they were under was their vindication's it was here, 
Act. 16. 16. 

Page 55 

5. The possessed of old were some of them exceeding fierce. 

Mat. 8. 28. So were some of these afflicted persons fierce, 
troublesome and mischievous in their fits, beyond their natural 
temper and behaviours at other times. From these things 
compared together, why may we not judge these demoniacks, as 
well as those in the Gospel? And that its possible for Satan in 
these times to afflict thus without Witches, as well as in those? 
Seeing these did also in their fits fome, gnash their teeth and 
pine away, as he did, Mark 9. 18. And here we may observe the 
weakness of the signs given by the Common Law, to know who 
is bewitched; (which signs as Keeble saith, are taken out of the 
tryals in Lanchashire, and from Bernard:) For the first sign given 
is; The wasting of a person and the cause unknown: This sign is 
very fallible: for, 1. The wasting may proceed from an unknown 
disease. And the ignorance of Physitians may ascribe that to 
Witchcraft which proceeds from a natural hidden disease. 2. Jobs 
sore boyles from head to foot came from Satan without 
Witchcraft, and the cause of them was most probably hidden 
from the common practice of Physitians. The second sign they 
give is, When two persons are taken together in the like strange 
fits. This may be a sign of persons possessed, and 

Page 56 

hapned often in the experiences at Salem, among the persons 
possessed, as abovesaid. The third sign given is, When the 
afflicted party truly telleth what the suspected person is doing at 
a distance. This is rather a sign of a person possessed. And we 
find the two men possessed, Matth. 8. 28 and c. had like fits, for 
both kept among the Tombs, both were exceeding fierce, so as 
to hinder persons passing that way, both together made the 
same outcry to Jesus, that he should not torment them. These 
things shew a unity among the Devils afflicting them: but no 
unity of Witches joyning with them. Fourth sign is, When the 

afflicted out of their fits know nothing what they did, or said in 
them. But this (if our obsessed or possessed persons said truly) 
often fell out in the tormented at Salem. Fifth sign, Supernatural 
strength in their fits. Now this is a sign of the possessed, Mark 5. 
4. Who in their fits brake chaines and fetters. Sixth sign is, When 
the afflicted vomit pins, nailes, irons, and c. To this I say, 
whether these pins, nailes, and c are by the Devil brought 
invisibly to the mouths of the persons so vomiting and so cast 
out from their mouths, but not out of their stomacks or throats; 
or whether they are insensibly conveyed by the working of Satan 
into the stomacks or throats of the persons vomiting, and so 
vomited forth, neither the one 

Page 57 

nor the other, can certainly prove the vomiter bewitched, unless 
it be made manifest that Satan doth thus vex the party by 
confederacy with a Witch. But where Satan hath a permission to 
vex and possess a person he may do these things, as well as 
other things he did unto the possessed mentioned in the 
Gospels. The seventh sign is, The afflicted person having the 
sight of the apparition of the suspected party, and when the 
mischief of a fit or the like following shortly after. Now it having 
been already proved, that Satan can represent, to those that are 
possessed, innocent persons: it is not to be wondered that Satan 
should represent to the eyes or imagination of a possessed 
sufferer, a Spectre representing a suspected innocent person just 
before he casteth them into a fit, especially seeing hereby he 
gaines upon the credulity of the possessed, and their friends, for 
the accusing an innocent, and it may be a godly person; for this 
helps forward his design as the accuser of the brethren. Rev. 12. 
10. I would then from these considerations infer, That if a party 
handled as in the seven particulars above expressed, cannot 
thereby be said to be bewitched, Then there is no need, unless 
somewhat else appear, to trouble our selves to enquire who is 
the Witch that troubleth such a party. 

Chapter 7 

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CHAPTER. VII. 3. Another principle improved in these Enquiries 
is, When the party suspected looks upon the parties supposed to 
be bewitched, and they are thereupon struck down into a fit, as if 
struck with a Cudgel. This bewitching by the eye is an opinion 
Seventeen Hundred years old, Nescio quis teneros oculis mihi 
fascinat agnos. Virgil. Mr. Gaul in his Book, Printed 1648. page 
128. Saith, Some Witches by inspecting, or looking on, but to a 

glance, or squint, or peep at with an envious eye, is sufficient to 
effascinate. And we may find much use made of this experiment 
in Tryals in England mentioned by Baxter, Glanvil and Burton. 

And however this seemed a presumption at Salem Village, yet at 
length it was apparent to be a delusion of Satan. For this 
experiment was found at the Tryals of persons when the Accused 
sought to clear themselves, and it cannot be conceived that then 
they would act Witchcraft to hasten their own Condemnation: 

And no person can be said to act Witchcraft against their own will 
and consent. Again, we read, Mark 9. 20. That when the 
possessed was brought unto Christ, and saw Christ, then the 
Spirit tare him, and he fell to the ground and wallowed foaming. 

Page 59 

that the Devil chose this time and place to cast the possessed 
into a fit even in the presence of Christ. Let us then consider 
these Afflicted to be Demoniacks, and we must own, it's in 
Satans power to cast them into a fit in the presence, and upon 
the sight of the Accused. And if this may increase the suspicion 
against the Accused, it's for his interest to chuse such a time. 4. 
Another presumption made use of hath been to cause the 
suspected to touch the party supposed to be bewitched, and if 
that touch bring the party out of their fit, this hath been 
esteemed by many a strong suspicion at least, as may be read in 
some of the fore cited Authors. And Mr. Glanvil supposeth a 
Philosophical reason for it, viz. that the Witch by the cast of her 
eye sends forth a Malefick Venome into the Bewitched to cast 
him into a fit, and therefore the touch of the hand doth by a 
sympathy cause that venome to return into the Body of the 
Witch again. As when a person is stung by a Snake, the 
application of the Body or flesh of the same Snake to the wound 
will draw back the poyson into its former fountain. But the truth 
is both these effects depend upon the Devils free agency: And he 
frames his things much according to the opinion of the 
Spectators, with intent to deceive. I never could see reason to 

Page 60 

such a kind of Tryal (though allowed by Bernard as lawful to be 
used;) but since have more considered it, I look upon it very 
unwarrantable to be used, being as it were the putting a staff 
into the hand of Satan, to try what he will do with it. For the 
recovery of the party out of the Fit hereby must be from a 
natural or divine cause, or from the Devil We cannot prove either 
of the two former and if the third, its but the Devils testimony, 

and therefore not to be used by us. 5. Another practice hath 
been when the party suspected is in Prison, and the Afflicted cry 
out they are miserably tormented by them: If then the suspected 
party be bound, and the afflicted person thereupon, have ease or 
release of their fits, then this is a presumption that the suspected 
party is guilty. This was used at Isanhal, Anno 1661. (see 
Glanvil, page 168.) and the success answered the expectation. 
But this is no ground so much as of suspicion, because it 
depends either upon some physical efficacy in binding to give the 
party ease, or upon the precontract of the suspected made with 
Satan, or from the voluntary act of the Devil ceasing to afflict at 
such a time; neither of the two former can be proved : not any 
physical vertue in the binding the party; for how can cords bind a 
Spirit, and as for the 

Chapter 8 

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Contract with Satan, that remains yet to be proved, and if such 
there be, yet the terms of it are to us unknown; and the Devil 
being a Lyar from the beginning, will keep or break his own 
promises, so as suites the interest of his Kingdom. So that in 
such cases we can ascribe the release of the afflicted only to 
Satans agency and policy by such a vile abusing the mischief of 
those which make the tryal. 6 The like is to be said when a 
Demoniack finds ease of their fits upon the apprehending, or 
condemning, or Execution of the person complained against. For 
that ease may come by Satans policy, desisting his rage to 
consum our error: or from Divine Favour in answer of prayer, or 
pity to the distressed. CHAPTER. VIII. 7. A seventh principle is, If 
the party suspected appear in Spectre to the afflicted, and the 
afflicted give a blow with a knife, sword, and c. unto the Spectre 
(or some other in their behalf) and the Spectre seems wounded, 
or bleeding, or to have their garment torn, or slit by the blow 
received. And that the party Spectrally represented be presently 
searched, and there is found upon their body a wound, or blood, 
and c. on the same part of their body, or a rent, or cut upon the 
same part of 

Page 62 

the garment, which appeared upon the Spectre unto the 
afflicted. This hath been counted a strong evidence to prove the 
party suspected to be a confederate with Satan in afflicting the 
complainer. As by Judge Archer in Coxes case, Executed at 
Taunton, Anno 1663. (See Glanvil part 2. p. 196) But let us 
search this to the bottom; and there is no ground of suspicion in 

such a kind of probation. For the ground of the suspicion ariseth 
hence viz. That what wound or mark is given to the Spectre (that 
is to the Devils aerial assumed body) is translated thence unto 
the person setting this Spectre on work to afflict; or to their 
garments, if the mark be on that. But we have no sufficient 
ground to know this. 1. For if it must be so, it must be either (1.) 
From some sympathy in nature between the Spectre and the 
party represented by it. But this we have no ground in reason to 
conclude; for whence or how should such a sympathy be 
between an humane body, and the Devil in the Image or likeness 
of it? Or if it were, how can there come such a sympathy 
between the garment of a person and the Devil appearing in the 
likeness of that garment? Surely the garment was not in any 
league with Satan? (2) Or this comes to pass by vertue of the 
Covenant between Satan and this confederate: if so we say, I 
ask how come we to know there is such an article in the bargain 
with the Devil? 

Page 63 

or if we know there were such an article in their agreement, how 
can we tell, that the Devil will stand to his own Covenant? Or, 

(3.) This comes to pass by the Immediate hand of God making 
such a translation of a wound and c. unto a Witch that they may 
thereby be discovered; which if so, it is preternatural if not 
supernatural. And we have no ground from Scripture to expect 
such a sign from God; and therefore to expect it is to be guilty of 
the sin of that Wicked Generation, that sought after a sign. Math. 
16. 4. Which should not be given to them. Or (4) This translation 
cometh (if there be any such) from the Devil as a free and 
powerful Spirit, afflicting the body or affecting the garment so 
marked: And if it be from hence, its the Devils testimony which 
ought to be no credit with mankind. 2. The true state of this case 
seems to be this; That the person or garment so represented to 
the Afflicted by a Spectre was wounded, or bleeding, or cut or 
rent before. And the Devil knowing this, represents to the 
afflicted (or striker at the Spectre) that part of the Spectre which 
answers the Body wounded, or garment rent or torn, the 
Searchers finding such wounds upon, or rents about the person 
suspected are ready to conclude it was done by the stroke at the 
Spectre which was done before. I shall confirm this by instances. 
There was at Chelmsford, an Afflicted person, 

Page 64 

that in her fits cryed out against a Woman, a Neighbour, which 
Mr. Clark, the Minister of the Gospel there could not believe 
guilty of such a Crime. And it hapned while that woman was 

milking her Cow, the Cow struck her with one horn upon her 
Forehead and fetched blood, and while she was bleeding, a 
Spectre in her likeness appeared to the party Afflicted, who 
pointing at the Spectre, one struck at the place, and the Afflicted 
said, you have made her forehead bleed. Hereupon some went to 
the woman, and found her fore head bloody, and acquainted Mr. 
Clark with it; who forthwith went to the woman, and asked how 
her sorehead became bloody, and she answered by a blow of the 
Cows horn, as above said; whereby he was satisfied that it was a 
design of Satan to render an innocent person suspected. Another 
instance was at Cambridge, about fourty years since: There was 
a man much troubled in the night with Cats, or the Devil in their 
likeness haunting of him, whereupon he kept a light burning, and 
a Sword by him as he lay in bed; for he suspected a Widow 
woman to send these Cats or Imps by Witch: craft to bewitch 
him. And one night as he lay in bed, a Cat or Imp came within 
his reach, and he struck her on the back; and upon enquiry 
heard this Widow had a sore back: this confirmed his suspicion of 
the Widow, 

Page 65 

he supposing that it came from the wound he gave the Cat. But 
Mr. Day the Widows Chyrurgeon cleared the matter; saying, this 
Widow came to him and complained of a sore in her back, and 
because she could not see it, desired his help; and he found it to 
be a Boyl, and ripened and healed it as he used to do other Boyls 
But while this was in cure, the supposed Cat was wounded as 
already rehearsed. But some may say when such wounds or 
rents come, it's not the Spectre that's struck but the real person 
or garment is there present, but by vertue of the Charm, or 
Witchcraft, a mist is cast between the Witch and Spectators in 
the room, whereby the person becomes invisible to all of them 
except the bewitched Sufferer. As some juglers have seemed to 
creep through a Tree or Log, when indeed its only upon the Tree 
or Log; but by inchantment a shadow of the Log or Cloud is cast 
over the Log between the Jugler and Spectators, whereby they 
are deceived. I Answer, If it were so, then those that strike with 
Sword, or other Instrument, and wound the party might feel 
some body, or garment stopping the force of their blow; for a 
Body can be felt if it cannot be seen, as above shewed. But when 
the stricken instrument feels no harder substance than Air to 
stop its force, and there seems to be a person in the 

Chapter 9 

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way to the Afflicted's eye: We may conclude its but a Spectre, or 
deluded imagination. CHAPTER IX. 8. If after Cursing there 
follows Death, or at least some mischief: This saith Perkins (in 
his Discourse of Witchcraft, Chap. 7. Sect. 2.) This is a 
presumption. For Witches are wont to practise their mischievous 
facts by cursing and banning. This also is a sufficient matter of 
Examination. I acknowledge when persons curse or threaten 
others to kill them, or do other mischief to their Bodies or 
Estates, and the mischief threatned is performed as threatned; 
here is ground so far to suspect the threatner, as to question 
them about it, unless it appeareth to be performed by some 
other person or cause. So if after Cursing there follows Death, 
and c. And it appeareth to be done by Witchcraft, this is a 
ground to suspect and examine the threatner, unless there be 
grounds to suspect some other Author of the Witchcraft. But as 
the proposition is laid down generally by Mr. Perkins, as a 
general rule I conceive it's unsafe. 1 Because such death, on 
mischiefs oftimes proceed from other causes, so that there is no 
ground to impute them to Witchcraft. For, 1. Some persons are 
of such hasty spirits and 

Page 67 

unruly tongues, that their mouth is dayly full of cursing and 
bitterness, Rom. 3. 14. 2. There be few House-keepers, where 
are many in Family and a Stock about them; but that by the 
hand of God, Death at some times enters upon some person in 
the Family, and Cattel sometimes dye by Diseases and 
Casualties: Who is there that hath an Estate, but at some times 
they meet with losses? 3. Hence it falls out that these calamities, 
some of them happen at or nigh some one time of their angry 
neighbours cursing, who had cursed them ten times before, or 
threatned them, and yet no such calamity ensued. And this their 
last threatning had no more influence upon the evil befalling the 
Family, than the ten causeless Curses that went before, as Prov. 
26. 2. What then doth all this prove? A tongue set on fire, and it 
may be from hell; but not a Covenant with Hell to procure the 
calamities that befal their Neighbours. Again, some are of such a 
suspicious temper, that they are apt to impute all sad accidents 
that do befal them, to proceed from Witchcraft, and thereby in 
suffering times are apt to be jealous of their Neighbours that 
come frequently to their Houses in their day of adversity, as 
causers of these afflictions by some charming or inchantment. 
Again, It may be Queried, Whether Satan may not sometimes 
take advantage upon the 

Page 68 

times when neighbours contend with, and threaten those that 
live by them, to do some hurt to the Bodies or Goods of those 
threatned, that thereby he may cast upon the party threatned, 
the imputation of Sorcery. Doubtless as he is the Accuser of the 
Brethren, Rev. 12 He would so do if the Lord will permit him to 
indanger the life of the threatner. And who can tell but that the 
Lord may permit him at sometimes so to do, for a just 
punishment to such unbridled tongues? I remember, that above 
fourty years ago, when there was a great discourse about 
Witches; A very holy man heard his Wife say, she desired a 
sucking Pig; and be going to a Neighbours house, saw a Sow 
with a litter of Pigs, and took a phantasie to one of them in 
particular for his Wife, and asked the Owner for that Pig; the 
Owner denied him: Hereupon be went away in a great passion, 
very unsuitable to such a person. And that very Pig left its dam 
and Company, and followed this man to his home. This was 
observed in the day of it, it was supposed Satan might have 
some hand in it, taking advantage upon the passion of so good a 
man, to render him suspected by such an accident if he could. 9. 
If any person, man or woman be notoriously defamed for such a 
party. This Perkins (eodem loco) makes a presumption. But in 
truth there is no weight in this, unless those neighbours among 
whom the suspected party 

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lived had good grounds for their suspicion: Because many 
persons have drunk in false principles about the tokens by which 
a Witch is to be known; and judge of persons accordding to 
those false principles (some of which are above recited) which 
may asperse the most innocent and righteous person living. Our 
Saviour was slandered as if he cast out Devils by Belzebub the 
Prince of Devils, Mat. 12. 24. And the Difciple is not above his 
Master, Mat. 10. 25. Some persons will put an evil construction 
upon an innocent action, and so raise an evil fame against a 
person; and then others believing it, are apt to look upon other 
actions with a squint eye, and through the multiplying glass of 
their own jealousies, make a Mole-hill seem a Mountain, to 
render an hated or despised neighbour evil spoken of. 10. If the 
party suspected be the Son or Daughter, or Man-servant, or Maid 
servant, or familiar friend, near Neighbour, or old Companion of 
a known and convicted Witch. This may be a presumption, saith 
Perkins. But unto all these it may be said, there is no more 
ground to suspect any person of this crime upon such relations 
or circumstances, then there is to presume a person is a Thief, or 
Murderer, or Drunkard, and c. because he is the Child, Servant, 

Neighbour, and c. of a Thief, Murderer, Drunkard, or the like, 

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Criminal. Which may be, or may not be if the Lord incline the 
heart of him or her that is so related, to abhor such wickedness. 
As the Wheat and Tares grow together in the same Field: So 
Good and Wicked in the same Neighbourhood, Family; yea, and 
lying in the same Bed, so that one shall be taken, and the other 
left, Mat. 24. 40, 41. Luk. 17. 34, 35, 36 The Lord saith, The Son 
shall not dye for the sin of the Father, Ezek. 18. 14 and 21. ver. 

If the Son, (Servant or Neighbour, or Companion) seeth the sins 
of his Father, and c. and doth not the like, and c. he shall not 
dye, and c. which shews that these so related may and 
sometimes do see and abhor the ways of wickedness, those so 
near unto them walk in, and abhor them, therefore they are not 
to be suspected, meerly upon that account. 11. Some make this 
a presumption. If a person sick and dying, doth take it upon his 
or her Death, that such an one hath bewitched them. See 
Perkins Chap. 7. page 210. So Keeble on the Common Law, 
saith, the testimony of the person hurt upon their death 
complaining against a person, that they appeared to them and 
bewitched them. Now in this ease it must be considered whether 
this dying person were not under Diabolical Molestations, or an 
abused phantasie, or under ungrounded suspicions of the party 
they complained of before they were so sick. And the grounds of 

Chapter 10 

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their suspicions are to be thorowly considered, before the 
survivers make this a ground of suspicion. Sure all this may 
proceed from false principles (as there Expressed) drunk in by a 
well meaning, but mistaken dying person. CHAPTER X. 12. Some 
saith Perkins, do add this for a presumption. If the party 
suspected be found to have the Devils mark: for it is commonly 
thought, when the Devil maketh his Covenant with them, he 
always leaveth his mark behind him. Bernard makes it a ground 
of Conviction. (Gaul only a presumption.) And Tertullian (who 
lived above 1400 years ago) says, It's the Devils custom to mark 
his; and note, saith Bernard, That this mark is insensible, and 
being pricked, it will not bleed, sometimes like a teat (and the 
Devil sucks, or toucheth them:) sometimes but a blewish spot, 
sometimes a red one, and sometimes the flesh sunk. I conceive 
such a mark is neither ground of conviction or suspicion. 1. 
Because the Lord sometimes in anger, and sometimes for tryal of 

his Servants, sends such marks upon the Bodies of men, as are 
unusual; as the Emerods upon the Philistins, 1 Sam. 5, 6, 7. 
Which made those Heathens say, The Hand of the God of Israel 
is sore upon us. And 

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Deut. 28. 27, 35. God threatens to punish his people for their 
sins, with a botch, emerods and with the Itch whereof they could 
not be healed. So then some of these sores might constantly be 
moist as if they had been sucked. 2. Many persons have 
naturally, or by some sickness or hurt, received some sores, 
like, if not the same with those they call the Devils marks, I knew 
a man, that lived and dyed without the least suspicion of that 
crime, that told me he had a natural issue upon his breast from 
his youth up, which distilled about a drop or two in twenty four 
hours, so that it was alwayes moist, and conduced much to his 
health. And as for the weaker Sex; The Lord hath said unto Eve, 
and her Daughters, In sorrow shall be thy Conception; but 
instanceth not in the particulars. But experience hath shewed 
upon some sober and pious women, after hard Travels and the 
like, that they have had those Excrescences which are called, Pils 
Uteri. And I have been informed by a skilful Midwife that hath 
known venuous women that have had those Piles, and that they 
are without sence of feeling, sometimes and after cold, handling, 
and c. are apt to draw up into the Body. Satan knows who hath 
(by the hand of God) such suspected marks, which the Lord lays 
on them as their affliction, and if he can by other means get 
them to be suspected, and their Bodies searched, he will hereby 
expose them to greater 

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suspicion, if not Condemnation; if we take this for a ground of 
conviction or presumption of guilt. But if he attains not that, yet 
hereby shall sober and innocent persons be exposed to the 
reproach of such, who when they understand God hath loosed 
their cord, and afflicted them, will as Job speaks, marr their 
path, set forward their calamity, and not spare to spst in their 
face. Job 30. 10, 11, 12, 13. For he or she that is ready to slip 
with his or her foot, is as a lamp despised in the thought of him 
that is at ease. And there may be such Excrescences from a 
natural cause, which yet Learned Physitians cannot find out, the 
reason of. Man knows but in part the Works of God, Eccles 11. 5. 
For he doth great things, and unsearchable; marvellous things 
without number. 3 If we enquire how these are known to be the 
marks of one in league with Satan? It must come from the 
Confession of Witches, that have owned such things. Now among 

the many Confessors at Salem, there were sundry declared they 
had such marks on them: one in her head which she said the 
Devil in likeness of a bird came daily, and pecked, or sucked. I 
saw the sore place and there was nothing to be seen to make it 
to differ from another sore coming by natural causes. Another 
said, she had the Devils mark upon her leg, which was a blew 
spot as broad as a Shilling: her Husband testifyed, that he saw 
the spot, but little suspected it to be the Devils 

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mark. Others had sores on other parts of their bodies, which they 
said the Devil sucked; but by all that, I could learn by those that 
saw them, there was nothing to demonstrate that they came in a 
preternatural way by Satan; but only the parties own 
affirmation: which whether true or false I leave to God and time 
farther to discover. And I suppose we had as many confessions 
and demonstrations to render what they laid credible, as hath 
been known at any one time in some Ages But be it so, that by 
the confessions of known Witches there have been upon some of 
the baser sort (as Bernard saith) of them, such teats, or marks. 
These may come by natural causes, or violent casualties, and by 
Satan be perverted to such an use. But if they come from Satan 
immediately as the confessors acknowledge. This can only tend 
to the conviction of those that so confess, and where those 
marks are found: but make nothing to the proof, or suspicion of 
other persons to be guilty of that crime, who having such marks 
deny the crime, and ascribe these bodily marks to other causes. 
So that its far more safe wholly to lay aside the practice of 
searching after suspected persons teats or Witch marks, unless in 
those who confess themselves to have them, and that for tryal to 
see whether they say true or not; then by using it to lay stress 
upon a fallible sign. 

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13. Another unsafe principle is to lay weight upon the testimony 
of Ghosts, as they are called; that is to say, Spectres appearing 
in the shape of the dead, and personating them. Satan by his 
wiles in this kind hath gained too much credit, in hours of 
Temptation. For it hath so happened, that when in the death of 
some persons there was any notice of a circumstance which 
might give unto a jealous eye, any colour for suspicion, that any 
one was accessary to their death; the Spectre personating them 
hath cryed out to the afflicted for vengeance against such an one 
for murdering them, telling the manner how, by relating the 
circumstances of their death: and presently people were ready to 
say, I remember those very circumstances in the dying of such a 

person. Well, it is very probable such an one murdered the party. 
And hereby the person suspected is accused of Witchcraft and 
Murder together, and by joyning these accusations together, 
both seem the more probable and credible. But that there is no 
reason to hearken to such accusations will appear if we consider. 
1. That Satan can assume the shape of living innocents, as 
above shewed, and therefore of the dead also; as of dead 
Samuel: and that shape being assumed can say what he 
pleaseth, or seem to the Imagination of daimoniacal persons so 
to speak. And he being a Lyar from the beginning, Joh. 8, 44. By 
his lyes he fastens what 

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accusation he pleaseth of murder, or other crime upon the living. 
And if hearkened unto will, as the deceived Eve, by falsely 
accusing God, deceive us by falsely accusing our Neighbour to 
us. I know Hystories speak of Ghosts discovering murders, at 
sometimes, and moneys lost or acts of injustice done in the life 
time of the person represented by the said Ghost; which some 
have conceived to be the very Soul of the deceased: (and by this 
opinion many Papists have been confirmed in the error of 
Purgatory:) Some a good Angel sent in that Similitude to procure 
justice to be done: and some have conceived it to be the Devil 
compelled, Volens Nolens, to discover injustice, or tranforming 
himself into an Angel of Light, as 2 Cor. 11. 14 by seeming 
zealous for justice. I should digress too far from my intended 
scope to discuss, what may be said pro or con in this matter. It 
sufficeth in the case, Anno 1692. To say we have had so much 
experience of the wiles of Satan appearing in the likeness of the 
living, that we have no reason to believe him in the likeness of 
the dead. 2. The hearkening after Ghosts, if we take not heed, 
may hurry us unawares into that sin forbidden, Isai. 8. 19. Viz. 
Seeking for the living to the dead? What? shall we hearken to or 
enquire of the dead, what they can say against the living? This 
hath a tendency to that inst 

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quity forbidden, Deut. 18. 11. by the name of Necromancy: in 
Hebrew it is, Vedoresh-el Hammethim. A seeker unto the dead. A 
like unto this deceit of Satan, was another of his devices. Viz. He 
would appear Spectrally in the shape of a Neighbour unto the 
afflicted, and say, I killed such and such a person, and relate in 
that shape the manner of the deceased's departure out of the 
world, by plausible and seemingly true circumstances which was 

in the day of it, too much credited to augment Suspicions against 
the accused: But the invalidity of such accusations appears by 
what is already spoken concerning the Apparition of Ghosts. 
CHAPTER. XI. 14. Some have laid great weight upon this, When 
something supposed to be bewitched, or to contain the charm by 
which the inchantment is wrought is burned in the fire, and the 
party suspected comes to the fire, or seems to be burnt after it, 
or by such like ways concerned; this hath been esteemed a 
farther presumption that they are guilty. As in Sir Mathew Hale 
his condemning Amy Duny, Printed Anno 1682. A toad found in 
the blanket of Durent (said to be bewitched) was held in the fire 
till it made an horrible noise, and the next day Amy Duny (who 
was suspected to bewitch Durent) was found all grievously 

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with the fire. The use of such experiments is justly condemned 
by Perkins and others, as after a sort a practice of Witchcraft: 

Yet the seeming discovery hereby made hath found 
entertainment by those that oppose the means used. But before 
we give credence to such a discovery, we must be very 
circumspect least we be deceived by humane knavery; as 
happened in a case nigh Richmond Island, circiter Anno 16 59. 
One Mr. Thorpe a drunken Preacher, was gotten in to Preach at 
Black point under the appearance and profession of a Minister of 
the Gospel, and boarded at the house of Goodman Bayly, and 
Bayly es Wife observed his Conversation to be contrary to his 
calling, gravely told him his way was contrary to the Gospel of 
Christ, and desired him to reform his Life or leave her house. So 
he departed from the house, and turned her Enemy, and found 
an opportunity to do her an injury: and it so fell out that Mr. 
Jordan of Spurwink had a Cow dyed, and about that time Goody 
Bayly had said, she intended such a day to travel to Casco Bay. 
Mr. Thorpe goes to Mr Jordans man or men and saith, the Cow 
was bewitched to death, and if they would lay the carcass in a 
place he should appoint, he would burn it, and bring the Witch: 
and accordingly the Cow is laid by the path that led from Black 
point to Casco, and set on sire that day Goody Bayly was to 
travel that way, and so she came by while the Carcass was in 
burning, and Thorpe had her questioned 

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for a Witch: But Mr. Jordan interposed in her behalf: and said his 
Cow dyed by his Servants negligence, and to cover their own 
fault they were willing to have it imputed to Witchcraft; and Mr. 
Thorpe knew of Goody Baylyes intended Journey, and orders my 

Servants (said he) without my approbation, to burn my Cow in 
the way where Bayly is to come; and so unriddled the knavery, 
and delivered the innocent. But suppose the case where there is 
no such deceit, and the suspected party comes to it, when such a 
thing is burned, or seems extraordinarily hurt or concerned at 
such a time, how will this prove the party guilty of the crime, he 
or she is suspected of? If any way, it must (1.) Proceed from 
some natural cause, or sympathy in nature, between the thing 
burned, and the Witches Body; but no reason can be given of 
this; for a charm is wrought by the Devils power, and not by any 
natural power of the Sorcerer, conveying any natural venome 
from their own body, which by the operation of the fire should 
revert back into it again, as to its center or fountain. (2) Or from 
the immediate hand of God, causing this effect for discovery of 
the Guilty; which we have no warrant from the Word of God to 
expect (as was said in another case, Chapt. 8.) (3) Or by means 
of the person burning the thing, and using it as a charm to find 
out the person that aid the inchantment upon the thing burnt; 

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which if it be affirmed truly, would rather prove the burner the 
Sorcerer; and so tend to clear the suspected. (4.) Or it proceed 
from the Compact made between the Devil and the Sorcerer; 
which if any affirm, I ask how know you there is any such 
Covenant made? that is first to be proved, and then that this is 
one article in that Covenant, and that the Devil will attend to, 
and keep his part of the Covenant inviolable. Neither of which 
can be demonstrated. (5) Or this suffering is a meer phantasie, 
or the free agency of the Devil, who is a lyar from the beginning, 
and therefore not to be heeded. This Experiment is like the ways 
of trying by water, fire, bottling of Urine, and c. all which have 
been justly condemned as a sort of charms to be rejected by 
Christians. Among the Confessors, Anno 1692 was a Negro 
Woman, who charged two women to make her a Witch, 
describing how she see her mark in the Devils Book. And said, if 
she might be permitted, she would fetch the things whereby she 
tormented the afflicted complainers. And accordingly brought an 
Handkerchief, wherein several knots were tyed, raggs of Cloth, a 
piece of Cheese and a piece of grass. And as I was credibly 
informed, some compelled her to swallow the grass, and that 
night she was burned in her flesh; and one took a piece of her 
ragg and burnt it in the fire, and one of 

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the Afflicted that had complained of her, was presently burned 
on the hand. Another piece of her rags was put under water, and 

then others complainants were choaked, and strived for breath 
as if under water: And another ran to the River as if she would 
drown her self. Here note, that the raggs on which, as the 
Confessor said, the Witchcraft was laid, did when put into fire 
and water, affect the persons supposed to be thereby bewitched 
more than the Charmer her self. And probably the cause may be, 
that Satan, the Lord permitting him, may inflict his mischief on 
the person, the Spectators or Actors herein suppose to be 
concerned, suiting hereby his design to mans faith about it. And 
if so, the reason why any suspected person is hereby concerned 
is not because they are guilty, but because they are suspected. 
15. If the above named Signs singly taken, are not sufficient to 
prove a person guilty of this Crime; then when many, or most of 
these suspicions above named center upon the same person, 
they cannot prove them guilty. Nay, all of them may be fixed 
upon the same person, by the wiles of the Devil, and yet the 
person be innocent. For if Satan can assume and afflict any one 
in the shape of an innocent, as hath been already proved, he 
may also in shape of a Ghost of the deceased accuse them, and 

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act over the suspicions mentioned. Quae singula non prosunt 
junct a non juvant. I find in the tryals and condemnations that 
have been in England and Ireland, several of them have 
proceeded upon sundry of these suspicions put together; and so 
the total thence arising hath amounted to a condemnation. See 
Glanvil, part 2 pag 118. to 209. In particular in the case of Julian 
Cox before Judge Archer, An 1663. pag. 191. But probably it 
may be said, that the method which I except against have been 
used with good success, for by such things Witchcrafts and 
Witches have been discovered, and some brought to confession 
and repentance, and given undeniable demonstrations of the 
reality of their guilt, and recovery after it out of that snare of the 
Devil and therefore such ways of discovery are still to be used. 
Ans. 1. Let us take it for granted, that these means have 
occasioned the discovery of Witches; yet if any of them are 
unlawful they are not to be used because of former success. 

Many things have been done irregularly which God hath turned 
to a good event; as the lying of Jacob to get the birthright; the 
Selling of Joseph by his Brethren. Yea, the diabolical divination of 
Nebucadnezar. Ezek. 21. 21. to 2 vers proved prosperous to him. 
And Baladm inchantments to procure a curse, God turned into a 
blessing to Israel. Yet none of these 

Page 83 

things are to be imitated by us upon hope of the like event to 
follow. 2. If the discovery abovesaid hath followed upon the use 
and dependance upon the means abovesaid, it may be said to 
come from Satan over-ruled by the Lord to subserve his glorious 
purposes) as the instrument of discovery, who exposeth at some 
times his own Vassals to humane justice, that he may cut them 
off from the earth: and therefore assumes their shapes or 
otherwise renders them suspected to their Neighbours upon such 
kind of presumptions, as may wrap in the guilty and innocent 
together, and thereby working upon the erroneous principles of 
men, doth (as we use to say, kill two birds with one stone,) 
deliver up his own Servant to quine, and give occasion for the 
condemnation thereby of an innocent person. But Satan is not to 
be trosted when he speaks truth, or doth that which eventually 
proveth good, because his aim is always to do mischief thereby. 
Our Saviour Christ would not accept Satans worship and 
testimony when he spake true. Mark 5 6, 7, 8 And Paul was 
grieved in spirit when the Devil gave an high testimony of him to 
be the Servant of the most high God. Act. 16. 16, 17, 18. 

Chapter 12 

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CHAPTER. XII. 16. Bernard saith, Witches may be convicted by 
their Extasies: with the delight whereof, Witches are so taken, 
that they will hardly conceal the same: or however at some time 
or other they may be found in them. But the insufficiency of this 
kind of proof will appear by considering the various sorts of 
Extasies, and the diverse subjects of them. Extasies are either 
natural, divine or diabolical. 1. Natural, which proceeds from the 
constitution of the body, and some violent disease, a Feaver, and 
c. whereby the imagination is strangely transported, and the 
party conceiveth himself to be in some glorious place and 
company and c. which proves but a meer dream of a man eating 
and drinking, but when he awaketh his soul is empty. Isa 29 8. 

2. Divine, as the trances of Peter, Act. 10.10 and of Paul, Act 22 
17 3. Or Diabolical, of Witches, persons Obsessed or Possessed. 
Some Histories speak of strange Extasies of confessed Witches. 

R. B. of the kingdom of darkness, p. 69, 70. Tells us of a Woman 
confessing her self a Witch, who pretended she had been turned 
into a Wolf and killed a Sheep and Cow in that shape, and the 
Cow and Sheep were killed at that time. And of a man Wolf that 
was suspected 

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in that shape, to devour Cattle, and his face had several 
scratches and hurts, which they said were given him by the Dogs 
that took him for a Wolf, and he confest himself, that twice a 
year he was changed from a man to a Wolf. But this change 
could not be real, but an abuse of Phantasie, either from a 
distracting Melancholy called Lycanthropia, whereby he imagined 
he was transformed into a Wolf. Or else, if he were indeed a 
Wizzard, the Devil cast him into a profound trance, whereby he 
imagined he was killing Cattle as a Wolf; while the mischief done 
was other wise, and probably by a real Wolf. But those that have 
been obsessed have had strange Extasies; as some of our 
afflicted persons have had their trance fits; in which they lay 
long time in a Swound, and when they came out of them 
declared they had been carried to delectable places, and had 
seen glorious sights of Men and Angels; as is in part declared 
above, Chapt. 5. So that its easier to find a person possessed or 
distracted by such Extasies, than to prove a person hereby in 
voluntary league with the Devil. 17. I come next to consider the 
testimony of such as confessing themselves to be Witches, do 
witness against others as partners with them in the same crime. 
This hath been accounted sufficient proof by the Common Law, 
See Keeble. 

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Ibidem. And Glanvil. Ibidem, p 141. and c. The ground of it is 
from the received Maxim, That Socii criminis, partners in a crime 
confessing their own guilt, and discovering their companions, are 
sit and sufficient witnesses against those their companions. As is 
frequently proved in cases of Murder, Treason, Robbery, Theft 
and c. and why not as well in Witchcraft? Perkins makes this only 
a presumption. But Bernard makes it a convictive evidence, 
when one or more fellow. Witches, confessing their own 
Witchcraft and bearing witness against others if they can make 
good the truth of their witness, and give sufficient proof of it: As 
that they have seen them with their Spirits; [Illegible word] or 
that they have been together in their meetings and such like. 

Now in the Examinations and tryals at Salem, there was great 
plenty of this kind of Testimony; for about Fifty confessing they 
most of them if not all accused others as partners with them at 
their Witch meetings; as at a great Pond nigh Andover, some of 
them said, they met together, and some at Newbury-falls, and 
were Baptized there by Satan. And some at Salem Village as 
above shewed, Chap. 2. and 3. Some said, they stole an horse 
and rode upon it in the air from Andover to Salem Prison, and 
there through the grate discoursed with one whom they accused. 

Another declared that she with widow S. went to Capt. W. and 
she said S. gave him a blow with a great 

Page 87 

stick, and yet were to him invisible: Capt. W. declared he had a 
sore blow as if with a great stick, but saw no body. Widow S. 
denyed that she struck him; then M. G. the confessor very boldly 
looked up in her face, and said, G. S. you know you did strike 
him, and I saw you do it, and then told the manner how it was 
done, and how they came to him and returned. There were many 
such instances which seemed exceeding demonstrative in that 
day. Yet upon an after review of the whole these confessors 
testimony appeareth to be very doubtful, if not utterly false. Yet 
I would not deny all evidence of confessors to be rejected: for 
the case may be so that persons may give such infallible signs of 
their own guilt of this, (as well as other crimes) and such tokens 
of real repentance for the same, as may render their testimony 
notwithstanding their former transgression as credible, as the 
testimony of any other confessing Malefactor. As Manasseh who 
used Witchcraft, and dealt with a familiar Spirit; and afterward 
besought the Lord and humbled himself greatly and c. 2 Chron. 
33. 6, 12, 13. Was as fit (had he been a Subject) to be a 
competent witness in any Court of Judicature, against those that 
had been partners with him in those abominations, as any other 
man. Here we must distinguish between Penitent Confessors, 
and Impenitent Magicians. It a Magician or white Witch (as they 

Page 88 

called) come in to discover and testify against another to be a 
Witch; This (as Perkins saith, Chap. 7. p. 209.) is no more then 
the Devils testimony, because by the Devils help be revealeth 
the Witch. And indeed such are but the Devils tools to do his 
work at his beck, and so will as readily accuse the innocent as 
the guilty. But the reasons that sway with me to question the 
truth of the confessors, Anno 1692. notwithstanding their 
seeming repentance for such crimes, are such as these. 1 These 
confessors by their plausible confessions and accusations of 
others begetting credit, have been a great if not the greatest 
Engine of Satan to carry on the accusing and apprehending of 
others, until this matter came to such an height, that if it had not 
been stopped might have brought the best Christians in the 
Country, under the imputation of that abomination, and have 
involved all in confusion or blood. The kingdom of Satan being so 
evident in the winding up of that whole contrivance, leads us to 
see his singer in this principal means, for the managment of it. 2. 

Some of these confessors were first under diabolical vexations, 
(as the other afflicted or obsessed persons were) and under 
those torments did, as they say, sign to a Book presented to 
them, real or imaginary, by which they obtained ease of their 
pains: And then Satan in their shapes afflicted others who 
accused them 

Page 89 

until they confessed. And after such confessions against 
themselves, they also accused others, as being with them, and 
they were afflicted themselves, as they had been at the first and 
complained against their Neighbours as others did. So that these 
persons may justly be esteemed Daimonizomenoi, under some 
kind of obsession and delusion of Satan all this time, and so their 
Phantasies and Sences abused by him all the while; Satan 
sometimes tearing of them as a devouring Lyon, and at other 
times beguiling of them, as a Subtil Serpent. 3. Others that were 
not so afflicted before their Confessing, were so presently after 
it, and so may be reckoned in the same predicament with the 
others. 4. I am jealous, and I hope with a godly jealousie, that 
some by these their accusations of others, hoped to gain time, 
and get favour from the Rulers. And that some of the inferiour 
sort of people did ill Offices, by promising them favour thereby 
more than they had ground to engage. And that some under 
these temptations regarded not as they should what became of 
others, so that they could thereby serve their own turns. And I 
have been credibly informed, that some have since 
acknowledged so much. 5. These Confessors since deny their 
Confessions, and accusing of others, or say they remember 
nothing of what they said or did in 

Page 90 

that day, whether truly or not, will be more manifest another 
day. We may then well question the validity of those Testimonies 
which the Testifiers themselves do not stand to justify now the 
scean is changed. 18. I come in the next place to consider a 
persons evidence against him or her self by their Confession 
upon examination and tryal This is by Scripture declared to be 
sufficient Evidence against persons Compotes mentis, of a sound 
understanding, Luk. 19. 22. Out of thine own mouth will I 
condemn, or judge thee. Yea, sufficient to justify an Execution 
upon it, whether the person speak truly or not. As David said to 
the Amalekite that affirmed he had killed Saul. Thy mouth hath 
testified against thee, 2 Sam. 1. 16. Yet its very probable that 
Saul slew himself without the help of any other. 1 Sam. 31. 4, 5. 
But there have been excepted, sell accusers when distracted, 

demoniacks, Lunauck, under witted, over watched, and persons 
surprized upon sudden fear or hope of favour to be thereby 
gained. So that we may hope some of those at Salem belied 
themselves. 1. Those that being grievously vexed with the Devil 
did, and said they well understood not what themselves. As 
above said. 2. It's probable, some being accused, and their own 
Relations among others, suspecting them, and vehemently 
urging them to confess 

Chapter 13 

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themselves guilty, were so surprized and amazed, that they 
confessed that in their haste, which they have cause to repent at 
leisure. And having once accused themselves, they feared to 
retract it presently left a worse thing should come upon them. 

But since they have recanted, those Confessions, and some such 
there were, whose conversations before and since that day have 
been sober and blameless, and give cause to hope better things 
of them. 3 But there were others, whose Confessions seemed 
more free and demonstrative of reality, and some who confessed 
upon real or pretended horrour of Conscience; and these 
attended with such circumstances, that some will say, there is no 
believing mankind confessing their guilt of any Crime, if these 
must not be believed. But I leave the true stare of their case, to 
a farther discovery, when the Lord please, in this life, or when 
God shall Judge the secrets of men. CHAPTER XIII. Having 
spoken of many supposed presumptions to discover a Witch, and 
shewed the invalidity of them. I shall enquire what is meant by a 
Witch. Exod. 22 18. For the clearing whereof, I shall enquire who 
are the Criminals condemned, Deut. 18. 10, 11. Concerning 

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1. Observe, That they were all Heathens who being ignorant of 
the true God, worshipped the Devil instead of God; so that all the 
crimes there condemned, are crimes which so far as they related 
to any Deity, respected the Devil as their God. 2. That all the 
nine crimes there condemned were of a like nature in general, 
and are either divers names for the same thing, or set forth sins 
very like one to another. (1.) This appeareth in the frequent 
putting of sundry of them together, when they are prohibited or 
condemned, as, Lev. 19. 31. and 20. 6, 31. The Wizard, and him 
that hath a familiar spirit are condemned together; and Mic. 5. 

12. Witchcrafts and Soothsayers. And Jer. 27. 9. Diviners, 
Dreamers, Enchanters and Sorcerers, that is Witches, are put 

together. Dan. 2. 2, 27. Magicians, Sorcerers, Astrologers, 
Soothsayers are conjoyned. So, Isa 47. 9, 12, 13. and 1 Sam. 

28. 3, 8, 9. Isa. 8. 19. and 19. 3. (2.) The same persons are 
frequently charged with the guilt of the abominations, signified 
by several of these names together. As Manasseh is charged with 
six of these abominations. 2 Chron 33. 6. viz. Causing his 
children to pass thorow the fire, observing times, using 
Enchantments, using Witchcrafts, dealing with a familiar spirit, 
dealing with Wizards. Ahaz is charged. 2 Chron. 28 3 with the 
first of these. The ten Tribes are charged with three of these 
abominations, 2 King. 17. 

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17. viz, Divination, Enchantments, and causing their Children to 
pass through the fire (3,) Sundry of these crimes are ranked with 
the gross Idolatrous worshipping of false Gods of the Apostates 
from the true God in Israel. As Manasseh, is charged with 
worshipping Baalim and the Host of Heaven, and chen with 
observing times, and c. 2 Chron, 33 2, 3, 5, 6, So Ahaz, 2 Chron, 
28, 3,4,23,25. So the ten Tribes. 2 King, 17. 7, 8, 11, 12, 16, 

17. And Judah, isa. 2. 6, 7, 8, 9. They are said to be like the 
Philistins in Soothsayings, and worship Idols, and c, See Psal. 

106. 35, 36, 37, 38. 2 King. 23. 5, 8, 10, 12, 13, 24. (4.) There 
seems then in all these abominations to be some idolatrous 
worship of the Heathen Gods, that is the Devil, whereby some 
special service was done to him; and that in expectation of some 
great good or benefit they expected to receive from him thereby. 
So the Egyptians in their distress sought to the Idols, Charmers, 
Wizards, and to them that had familiar spirits. Isa. 19. 3. That is 
that by those persons and means they might implore and obtain 
the assistance of their Gods, to deliver them from the calamities 
felt or feared. 1. The first then is making thy Son to pass through 
the Fire; that is to Moloch, or any false God, forbidden and 
condemned, Lev. 18. 21. and 10. 2. The sin of Ahaz, 2 King. 16. 
3. and of Manasseh. 2 King. 21, 6. who observed times, used 

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inchantments, dealt with familiar spirits and Wizards, ards, used 
Witchcrafts, 2 Chron. 33. 6. So that we may observe this iniquity 
hath some affinity with Witchcraft and the sins mentioned, Deut. 

18. 10, 11. partly because joyned with them in this place; and 
also because this and Manassehs Witchcrafts, and c are joyned 
together in the places above mentioned. And this sin is also 
reckoned with the Divinations and Enchantments of the Ten 
Tribes. 2 King 17. 17, 30, 31. Judah tell to it. This iniquity was a 
solemn dedication, or tacrificing their Sons and Daughtery to the 

Devil, -Psal. 106 37. though under-the name of a God, as of 
Moloch, Lev. 20. 2. or some other false Gods. Deut. 12 30 31, 
And this Dedication was as the Ancients describe it, of two kinds. 

1. By burning their Children to death in the Fire, as a Sacrifice to 
the Devil; which seems to be signified by the burning in the fire, 
Deut 12 31. and Psal 106, 37, 38. For they shed the innocent 
blood of their children. So the Graecians sacrificed to Diana, 
Agamemnons Daughter, to procure a good Wind for their Fleet. 
Ovid Metamorphosis, lib. 13 This Sacrificing by the apostate 
Jews, in Jeremiah's time, was in Tophet, in the Valley of the Son 
of Hinnom. Jer. 7. 31. and 19. 5, 6. From hence it is that Hell is 
called in the Greek, Geenna. Mat. 5. 22, 29 30. From the hebrew 
Gebinnom, and Tophat. Isa 30. 33. God hereby shewing the 

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he had of their Idolatry and Cruelty in those Sacrifices. 2. There 
was another sort of passing thro' the Fire; when the Child passed 
between two fires, as a solemo dedication of him to that false 
God they sacrificed unto. This probably was Manasseh's sin. 2 
Chron 33. 6. For it's said, he caused his children to pass thorow 
the fire. But he did not sacrifice to death all his Children; Though 
he might by such a dedication, consecrate them to the host of 
Heaven, or to the Heathen Gods. By either or both these ways, 
such Idolaters did make or confirm a Govenant with the Devil by 
sacrifice. As Gods people did make a Covenant with God, by 
sacrificing to him, Psal. 50. 5. And did thereby shew their 
seeking help from the Devil, their invocation of him, and 
dependance upon him for some great things they supposed he 
could supply them with. So that here was one kind of charming 
or inchantment used to a false God, which was condemned to 
death. Exod. 22. 20, For by the using these abominable 
Ceremonies, they did invocate the Devil to do them some great 
good As the Graecians sacrificed Agamemnons Daughter to 
procure a Wind for their Navy, and having a fail Wind, after 
wards imputed it unto their Sacrifice. And by that Law, Lev. 20. 

2, 3. He that giveth any of his seed to Moloch, shall surely be put 
to death, These Sacrificers in Israel, ought to dye. 

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2. The second Sin foretold, Deut. 18 10. is That useth Divination. 
Kosem Kesaamim in Hebrew, from the verb Kasam, to divine, 
which is in its derivatives sometimes used in a good sence. Prov. 
16. 10. Isa. 3. 2. Kosem, The prudent. But Deut. 18. 10. used in 
an evil sence And Ezek 12. 24. for a flattering divination such 
was Balaam, Josh 13. 22. A soothsayer, or diviner: the Philistine 

Priests, 1 Sam. 6. 2. Judahs false Prophets, Ezek. 13 6, 7, 23. 

Jer. 14 14. Ezek. 22. 28. Micah 3. 6, 11. Zech. 10. 2 Jer. 29. 8. 
Though they prophecied in the Name of the Lord: but false and 
vain visions Applyed also to the Babylonish Priests, Ezek. 24 21. 
23. and to their diviners, Isa. 44. 25. And Sauls rebellion is 
compared to the sin of Witchcraft, 1. Sam. 15. 23. Or of Kosem, 
that is divination, which shews it was a great sin: whether the 
divining were by, or in the Name of the true God, or a false God: 
And it was a prophecying of things to come true or false, or using 
means whereby they might fore-know future contingencies, and 
so be able to foretell them, as Ezek 21. 21, 23. 3. Is an observer 
of times. Hebr. Megnonen. Always used to shew a wicked 
practice, as 2 Chrou 33. 6. Tis one of the sins of Manasseh Tis 
forbidden, Lev. 19 26. Neither shall ye observe times. A sin of 
the Philistines, imitated by the wicked Jews, Isa 2. 6. there 
translated Sooth sayers: and from this, some of them are called 

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Sons of the Sorceress, Isai. 57. 2. Of Gnonenah. A sin of the 
Amonites, Moabites, and other heathens condemned, Jer. 27. 3, 
9, 10. translated Enchanters; when they prophecved a lye to 
them; saying, ye shall not serve the King of Babylon. Some of 
the Hebrew Doctors derive the word from Gnajin, an eye, and 
interpret it of them that hold and abuse the eyes, so as to make 
men think, they see what is not really so. Some others derive it 
from Gnanan, a cloud, and hold it to be a kind of divining by the 
clouds. And others from Gnon, time, who by their pretended skill 
foretel what times are good, or evil to attend any weighty 
business in. Such are called Soothsayers, Micah 5 12 And 
observer of times, Deut. 18. 14. The Greek translation (which 
was before the birth of Christ) call him Cledonizomenos; a 
foreteller of things to come, or a fortune-teller. 4. Name is an 
Enchanter. Menachesh of the verb Nichesh, which is used in a 
lawful sence, Gen 30. 27. I have learned by experience. And of 
Josephs divining by his cup, Gen 44 5, 15. Which Ainsworth 
rendereth, searching, search diligently (that is) by this cup: Or 
(as it may be translated) make tryal of you; that is, whether you 
are such men as you profess your selves to be. And indeed by 
this cup in Benjamins sack did Joseph try and search out his 
brethren, to prove what love they did bear to their father Jacob 
and brother Benjamin, which 

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I understand to be the divining of Joseph there intended. But 
mostly the word is used to signify some wicked practice: As for 
the enchantments of Balaam, Numb. 24, 1. and 23. 23; Of 

Manasseh, 2Chron 33. 6. Of the ten tribes, 2 King 17. 17. And is 
condemned, Lev. 19 26. 5. Abomination is a Witch. Mechasheph 
Note this word is always used to set forth some wicked 
abomination, and the worker of it. The Egyptian sorcerers are 
charged with it Exod. 7. 11. Who are called Sorcerers, or 
Witches. Mechashepim. And Manasseh, 2 Chron. 33 6 used 
Witchcraft: and the wise men of Babylon that Nebucadnezer sent 
for to tell and interpret his dream, are called, Dan. 2. 2. 
Mechashepim Witches, or as tis translated Sorcerers. Such also 
were the Prophets of the Edomites and heathen Nations, Jer. 27. 
9. called there Sorcerers. And the Babylonians are charged as 
guilty of Witchcrafts, called Sorcerys, Isa 47. 9, 12. And Ninveh 
is called a Mistress of Witchcrafts, Nahum 3 4. And Jezabel is 
charged by Jehu with this wickedness, 2 King 9. 22. And Judah 
also is charged with this abomination, Micah 5. 12 Yea after their 
return from Babylon, Mai 3. 5 Where the Lord threatens to be a 
swift witness against the Sorcerers, or witches among them The 
Septuagint Greek translation render this word, which is by us 
called in the Scripture Witch and Sorcerer, by the name 
Pharmacos, and their Witchcrafts and Sorcerys, they call 

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and Pharmaceia: and so these Greek names are in the New- 
Testament translated, [Illegible word] which very much follows 
this Greek translation in quoting the Scriptures of the old 
Testament) Gal. 5. 20. Witchcraft, Sorcerys, Rev. 9. 21. and 18. 
23. And Sorcerers, Rev. 21. 8. and 22. 15. 6. The sixth iniquity 
here condemned is, A Charmer. Hebr. Chobe Chaber; a Chaimer 
of Charms: of Chaber, to joyn together in Society. Sometimes 
used for a lawful Associating; but in Deuteronomy and other 
places, for a wicked joyning Society, as Isa 47. 9, 12. translated 
Enchantment: stand now to thine Enchantments, and c. And 
Psal. 58. 5. used to express the Charming of a Serpent. The 
Greek call such an one, Epaiodan Epaioden: the Charmer of a 
Charm. 7. The seventh word is, A consulter with familiar Spirits. 
Hebr. its Shod Oh, that asketh of Ob, the familiarSpirit; rendred 
by Buxtorf,Pytho, a sin forbidden, Lev 19.31. So that the 
regarding hose that have familiar Spirits is prohibited, Lev. 19 
31. and Lev. 20. 27. The man or woman that hath Ob, that is, a 
familiar Spirit, shall be put to death. See Lev. 20 6 This was one 
of Manassehs sins, 2 Chron 33 6. 2 King. 21. 6. And for going to 
such a Woman the Lord killed Saul, 1 Chron. 10. 13. See of 
these, Isa. 8 19. and 19. 3 and 29. 4. Such as these are 
commonly joyned with Wizards, as in the Scriptures quoted. And 

such Saul cut off,l Sam. 28.3,9. and yet after that sought to 
such an one to his 

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own destruction, 1 Sam. 28 7, to 21. namely to the Witch at 
Endor. The Greek translator in the Scriptures above quoted, call 
them, Eggastrimuthai: persons that speak in or from their 
bellies, because of old time as Histories mentioned, those who 
prophecyed or spake by inspiration of the Devil, or heathen 
Gods, spake a from their bellies, when they gave answers to the 
people from their heathen oracles. Which probably is pointed at, 
Isa. 8. 19 Where such are said to peep and mutter; and Isa. 29 
4. 1 speak out of the ground, and out of the dust. 8 The Eighth 
name for these abominable persons is, A Wizard, Hebr, 
Jaddegnoni; of Jadang to know. But here notes such an art and 
way of knowing as is wicked, not allowed or by God, and 
therefore not proceeding from nature, or lawful art, or divine 
Revelation therefore from Satan. Such are condemned as worthy 
of death. Lev 20. 27 And it was one of the Iniquities of 
Manasseh, 2 Chron 33.6 He dealt with Wizards, Gnashah 
Jiddegnoni; He prepared, obtained or made use of Wizards This 
name is commonly joyned with the having familiar spirits; as, 
Levit 19 31 and 20 6, 27, 1 Sam. 28. 39 2 King. 9. 21. 6. and 27 
24. Isa. 8. 19 and 19. 3. So that it seems to be another name to 
signifie one that hath a familiar spirit, for his knowledge 
thereby, or at least to agree in the main with such. 9. Name is, A 
Necromancer, Doresh El. Hammethim, 

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a Seeker to the Dead. This was the sin of the Witch at Endor to 
seek unto dead Samuel to give counsel to living Saul, 1 Sam. 28. 
which is also condemned. Isa 8. 19 Should a people seek for the 
living to the dead? This opinion was among the Heathen, that the 
Dead might be raised, and give them advice. So Pomphey in his 
distress desired the Ghost of a dead Souldier might come to him, 
to give him counsel what to do. And by such means, the Devil 
counterfeiting himself, this or that dead person, often deceived 
them And by such kind of Apparitions, the Doctrine of Purgatory, 
and other Superstitions have been much rivetted among the 
vulgar with the Papists. By viewing the crimes condemned, Deut. 
18. 10, 11. as they are mentioned in other Scriptures, we shall 
find, they all speak of sins very like one to another, and some of 
them but divers names for the same crime. The Lord aiming in 
this place to condemn all those diabolical Artists, by whatever 
names they were known among the Israelites, or Canaanites. For 
we shall find several of these names fixed upon the same person, 

as on Manasseh, 2 Chron. 33 6. Six of these names, or crimes are 
fastened upon him. And the Witch at Endor is mentioned, 1 Sam. 
28 as one that was a Necromancer, a Wizard, and having a 
familiar spirit, and a Diviner by it. See also, Isa. 47. 9 12, 13. 

Jer. 27. 9. Hence then the way to understand the 

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crimes pointed at in the prohibitions mentioned in Deut. 18. is to 
examine what were the crimes those stand charged with in 
Scripture who are branded with any of these names. I begin with 
the Sorcerers or Witches of Egypt, Exod. 7. These did imitate the 
real Miracles of Moses, in making frogs, and turning his Staff into 
a Serpent, and water into blood: And this was done by these 
Sorcerers either by some humane power, art and dexterity, or by 
the assistance of the Gods of Egypt (mentioned, Numb. 33 4. 2 
Sam. 7. 23.) that is by the Devils aid. But they could not do 
these things by humane power, art, or dexterity; therefore by 
the Egyptian Gods, i.e the Devils. This will appear, if we consider 
what was the case between Moses and Pharaoh and why Pharoah 
sent for his Sorcerers. Moses by the Lords commission said to 
Pharoah, Exo 5. 1. And the Lord (or Jehovah, for so it is in 
Hebrew) the God of Israel saith, Let my people go, and c. 

Pharoah answered, Who is Jehovah that I should obey his voice? 
As if he had said, I know not this Jehovah, I worship other Gods 
even the Gods of Egypt. Now then Moses must prove Jehovah 
ought to be obeyed, and that must be by working a Miracle as a 
sign so Pharoah. This Pharoah asketh of Moses, and God 
promiseth that he will do for and by Mosses, Exod. 7. 3, 5, 9. 

The case between Pharaoh and Moses, was somewhat like the 
case between 

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Elijah and Baals Prophets. 1 King. 18. whose God should be 
worshipped? and this must be tryed by some sign, as here by 
frogs, lice, locusts, and c. So there by fire fetcht from Heaven to 
consume the Sacrifice; and in both cases, the Lord shews he is 
greater than all Gods, as Jethro acknowledged; For in the thing 
wherein they dealt proudly, the Lord was above them. In 
prosecution of this Commission, Moses and Aaron turn their Rod 
into a Serpent, and the water of Egypt into blood, and bring 
frogs to cover the land of Egypt: Here were real Miracles, which 
prove that Jehovah ought to be obeyed. For that Message which 
is confirmed by evident Miracles, comes from the God of Power 
and Truth, and therefore ought to be obeyed. Pharoah now will 
try if his Sorcerers cannot do as much as Moses and Aaron, that 
he may invalidate the Miracles of Moses, and it's said, they did in 

like manner, Exo. 7. 11, 12, 22. and 8. 7. Gnashashu Chen. They 
did somewhat like to what Aaron had done. If it were by humane 
power and dexterity only, then it must be by bringing Serpents, 
Blood and Frogs under their garments, or the like, and by slight 
of hand, slipping them down before the company with such 
celerity, that the things first presented, might seem to be 
transformed into another nature. But that it was not so appears, 
1. In that they could not be provided before 

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hand with Serpents, blood and frogs, to present before Pharoah 
at those times, because no humane art could tell them before- 
hand, what Miracles Aaron would work, to inable them to stock 
themselves with such provision before hand. 2. Had they so done 
by meer humane art, there had been no comparison between the 
actings of Moses and theirs; and so no argument to direct whose 
God was to be obeyed, whet ther Jehovah, or the Gods of Egypt. 
For Pharoah and his Courtiers, yea, and Moses also could easily 
discover such legerdemain, and indeed it would have rendred the 
Magicians ridiculous, and Pharoah for improving of them. For 
Pharoah was convicted that what Aaron did was a reality; for 
Aarons rod devoured the Magicians rods, and the blood was so 
over all the land of Egypt, that the fish died, and the River stank, 
and the Egyptians wanted drink, and the frogs so covered the 
Land of Egypt, that Pharoah acknowledged they came by 
Jehovah. For be requesteth Moses and Aaron to intreat Jehovah 
to take the frogs away, Chap. 8. 8. 3. If they had only brought 
Serpents, Frogs and c. from other places, and thrown them down 
by jugling slight of hand; then when Aaron brought lice upon 
man and beast, they could have taken lice also, and scattered 
them about; for they tryed by their inchantments to bring forth 
lice, but could not: and yet lice 

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were as easily, if not more easily obtained than frogs and 
serpents, and they were men still, and had their hands and feet 
to act with now as well as before: But now they are convinced 
and confess, This is the finger of God; that is of a greater God 
than any we worship and work by. 4. The Magicians brought 
frogs up upon the land of Egypt, ver. 7 which shews they 
produced frogs in more places than just where they stood and 
acted; and therefore did not act meerly by slight of hand. Hence 
we may conclude, that the Serpents, Blood, and Frogs the 
Magicians shewed, were effects above mans power, and not by 
Jehovah, therefore by the Devil, the God of Egypt. Whether the 
Devil did only delude the sight, and bewitch the eyes of Pharoah, 

and the Egyptians, or make real frogs and serpents out of the 
putrid matter in Egypt, or make aerial bodies like them, or that it 
was the Devils assuming such like shapes, I determine not: But 
we may observe, that here the Devil, and his Magicians went 
very far, and farther than at other times; for now Moses is at 
hand to overcome their delusions by the power of Jehovah, and 
to convince beholders, that there is no God of the Heathen, can 
work like the God of Israel. Yet for a time the true Miracles of 
Moses, and the seeming ones of the Magicians seem to be pretty 
much alike. For it's said, 

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they cast down every man his rod, and they became Serpents. It 
is not said, and they shuffled in Serpents instead of their rods, 
but their rods were serpents, at least in outward appearance. 
These effects then so like to Moses real Miracles, might move the 
Magicians to try a fourth time if they could not by their 
inchantments produce lice, but here their power failed. And the 
true reason was, their God was in chains, and the Lord bound 
him that he should proceed no further to delude men by his 
pretended miraculous power. 2. I Enquire what was the Crime of 
the Woman at Endor, that had a familiar spirit? 1 Sam. 28. 7. 
and c. A. She was such an one as Saul had cut off as being a 
Wizard, and having a familiar spirit, ver. 3. and 9. In hebrew 
they are called, Eth Haobeth; that is, those that have Oh. and 
ver. 7. Esheth bagnalath Oh. A woman that is mistress of Oh. 
that is rendred one that is Mistress of Pytho, a Prophecying 
Spirit. Enggastrimuthos as above declared; one that speaks as 
from her belly by help of the Devil. Q. What then was this Pytho, 
or Ob? A. It was a divining spirit; to divine by the Devil. Whence 
the possessed Damosel, Acts 16. 16. is said to have the spirit of 
Pytho, which was the Devil that possessed her, by whom she did 
Soothsay. The Jewish Rabbi, Aben Esra saith, they were called 
Oh, because 

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from a belly swelled like a bottle, they gave out their Oracles. 

And Oboth is translated bottles, Job 32. 19. Ainsworth on Deut. 
18. 11. saith, such Magicians are so called, because they speak 
with an hollow voice as out of a bottle. This Woman at Endor was 
then one that only plaid tricks with a bottle, or one that was 
mistress of Ob the Devil as her familiar spirit to wait upon her; 
not the former, therefore the latter. For (1) By this her Spirit, she 
offers to bring up to Saul whom he desired, v. 11. (2) She brings 
up the supposed Samuel, (i. e. as I conceive, the Devil in 
Samuels likeness) That doth so much resemble Samuel for his 

Age, Complexion, Mantle and Voice, that Saul takes him to be 
real Samuel: And makes answer to him as if he were the real 
Samuel, ver. 15. And receives a sad message from him, as if it 
had been spoken by Samuel himself, ver. 16, 17, 18, 19. So that 
this Woman was a Necromancer in raising up dead Samuel, or 
the Devil in his likeness. Some indeed do plead that this woman 
only plaid tricks with a bottle, and a cunning knave assisting of 
her, counterfeited the voice of Samuel, and deceived Saul 
thereby. And they plead that Oboth is in one place translated 
bottles, viz. Job 32. 19. Whether truly or not, I now stay not to 
discuss; but if it were truly translated so here, yet in fourteen 
other places, Ob. and Oboth is 

Page 108 

translated a familiar spirit, or spirits; and we are to compare this 
in 1 Sam. 28. with those many Scriptures where it's rendred so 
as referring to an Evil Spirit. But say they Manasseh, 2 Chron. 

33. 6. deal with a familiar spirit: hebrew, 'tis Gnashah Ob which 
they would render he made Ob. Now say they he could not make 
a familiar spirit although he might a bottle. To which I answer. 1. 
The verb Gnashah, signifies to get, obtain or set up (as the 
Dutch translate it) so that here is nothing in this place to make 
for their turn; for though he could not make a familiar spirit, yet 
he could obtain, or set up a familiar spirit. 2 Manasseh his sin in 
this was like his Sacrificing his Children through the fire, which 
was certainly a kind of invocation of a falseGod,i.e. the Devil; 
and the description of his apostasy v. 3 to 8 shews that he was 
turned from the true God to the Gods of the heathen, to worship, 
and invocate them, and why not to have a spirit to obtain 
answers by, called Ob? But that this Witch at Endor did more 
than play tricks with a bottle, appeareth. (1) Because her sin was 
a capital crime, and they that sought to such persons were 
cursed of God, Lev. 19 31 and 20 6, 27. Isa. 8 19. And it cannot 
be apprehended that she and others would hazzard their lives 
meerly to play tricks with a bottle 

Page 109 

or that the people heathens and Israelites should be so 
exceedingly addicted to follow such, as to need such severe 
prohibitions, and punishments therefore. (2.) Saul had put many 
such to death for having Ob: And its not likely this woman after 
this would keep such a bottle to play with to the hazard of her 
life. (3) Saul and his Courtiers that had cut off so many of them, 
must necessarily know what the crime was, they were put to 
death for. (4) Saul sought not for one that could play tricks with 
a bottle; but for one that by the help of her familiar could raise 

Samuel (or a Spirit in his likeness) which was agreeable to a 
corrupt opinion among them, that they might seek help from the 
dead: forbidden Isa. 8. 19 Should a people seek for the living to 
the dead, i e. to the Souls of the Dead. (5.) If she had only playd 
tricks with a bottle, how could she or any other personate 
Samuel, as he did speaking to Saul, v. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19? If it 
be said, she had a man, a knave, to come in such a garb to 
personate the voice and mantle of Samuel: Then I ask, how in 
the night time this woman without notice given could have a 
counterfeiting knave and mantle in such a readiness? For Saul 
came to her in the night, and without warning, v 8, 9. (6) A meer 
juggling knave or quean could not prophecy the victory of the 
Philistians, the death of Saul and his Sons, Jonathan and the 
rest, as the supposed Samuel did. But Satan 

Page 110 

might so know and prophesy (as I may farthe shew hereafter.) 
For Saul dyed for this very sin, in going to ask counsel of one 
that had a familiar Spirit, to enquire of it, 1 Chron. 10. 13 14. 

And this the Lord might discover to Satan for the punishment of 
Saul, as he did the death of Ahab unto Satan, upon a like 
account. As Micaiah was shewed in a vision, 1 King. 22.19 to 23. 

3 I enquire, What was the profession and practice of the 
Babylonian Sorcerers mentioned, Isa. 47. 9 12, 13, 14 Ezek. 21. 
21. Dan. 2. 2. A. 1. They were like the Sorcerers of Egypt, for 
they have the same general names of Sorcerers and wise men. 

2. They were Chatsim bacochabim; that is Prophets by the Stars: 
(translated Stargazers) for Chotseh is used to signify a Propher, 
or Seer Isa. 30. 10. 2 Sam. 24 11. 1 Chorn, 21 9. and 25 5. 2 
Cbron 9 29 and 12. 15. and 19.2. and 29.25 and 35. 15. Amos 7. 
12. Here are ten times or places where this word is used to 
signify a Prophet; which give light unto this place, to shew that 
these Stargazers did prophesy by the Stars And it cannot be 
understood of any foretelling by them, of signs, seasons, days 
and years, which God ordained them for, Gen. 1. 14. For that is 
a knowledge lawful and commendable, and attainable by lawful 
art and study: but what the Prophet chargeth them with here 
was unlawful, and therefore such a kind of prophecying, as 

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proceeded from a false God, that is the Devil. 3. They are called 
Monthly Prognosticators. Modignim lechadashim, knowers by the 
months; Modignim proceeds from the same Radix with 
Jiddeguoni, a Wizard, and hath some affinity with it here. These 
then were a sort of foretellers of things to come, by the Months 
or Moon. 4. Add to this, that v. 9. and 12. they are charged with 

the guilt of Sorcerys or Witchcrafts, and Inchantments, which 
shews what kind of Prophets they were. 2. They used Witchcraft 
in a way of operation, whereby they endeavoured to deliver their 
Country from the evils coming on them. This appeareth, (1.) By 
the challenge Isaiah makes to them, v. 12. Stand now to thine 
inchantments, and c. if so be thou shalt be able to profit, if so be 
thou mayest prevail, q d. They hoped to put off the mischief and 
desolation that was to come upon them, by their Witchcrafts, 
and c. (2.) He tells them, their Astrologers and c. should not 
save them from the things coming on them; but should be as 
stubble and the fire should burn them and c. v. 13, 14, 15. 

Which intimates, that these Astrologers and c. did strive and 
endeavour it with hopes to prevail; but the Lord would overrule 
and disappoint their endeavours. 3. Compare this with Ezek. 21. 
21. Where their diviners used divinations to know secret 
futurities, viz. Whether they should go to Jerusalem 

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and prosper, or to Rabbath and prosper. That this was a 
diabolical divination may be seen, if we consider. (1.) The thing 
they sought for was a future contingent event to man unknown. 
(2.) The means they use to discover it is secret were, by Images 
orTeraphin (which were the Devils oracles,) and by arrowes, and 
by looking into the liver, for signs of direction to know which of 
these places they should first go to, and whether they should 
prosper in their way. And these means had no vertue in them to 
make any such discovery (3) Therefore they did by these rites 
and ceremonies invocate their gods to reveal these things to 
them The Lord indeed did unknown to them over-rule the 
divination so that according to their Superstitious imaginations 
they were inclined to go against Jerusalem, and God made it to 
prosper; not thereby approving, or excusing their invocating 
false Gods: but that thereby he might use them, as the rod of his 
wrath against the people of his wrath. (4.)By comparing these 
two Scriptures above, we may see of what stamp the wise men 
of Babylon were, who were sent for by Nebuchadnezar, to tell 
and interpret his dream, Dan. 2. 2. And to interpret his other 
dream, Dan. 4, 6, 7. And by Belshazzer, to read the hand writing 
and interpret it, Dan 5. 7. viz. Men that had peculiar intimacy 
with, and special aid from their false Gods, as the Sorcerers and 
diviners mentioned, 

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Isa. 47. and Ezek 21. For (1.) They have the same name, 
Michashpim Sorcerers and Witches: and Chartuminim,one of the 
names of the Sorcerers of Egypt, Exed. 7. 11. (2) This was 

agreeable to the end those Kings sent for them. viz. to discover 
secrets which other men could not. And they confidently profess 
a skill to interpret the Dream, if they may know what it is Dan 2 
6. Which stem, to hold forth that they depended upon a power 
superhumane, to discover to them the interpretation of Dreams; 
yet they confess they cannot reveal the dream it self. And good 
season, for the Gods they served knew it not. Yet they say the 
Gods whose dwelling is not with flesh, could reveal it. Which 
shews they acknowledge a Divine Power that knew the greatest 
secrets, who is indeed the true God unknown to them. And when 
Daniel had revealed the Dream and its interpretation. Dan 2. And 
afterwards interpreted another dream Dan. 4. He is 
acknowledged to excel all the Wise men of Babylon in that, in him 
was the spirit of the Holy Gods. Dan. 4. 8 and 5 11. That is, the 
spirit of a God above their Gods; a God that was as 
Nebuchadnezzar confesseth, Dan. 2. 47. A God of Gods, and a 
Revealer of secrets. The High God. Dan 4. 2. Yet this hinders not 
but that the Magicians, and c. had more of the spirit of their 
Gods, than others had, though not equal to Daniel. 

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Q. 2. What was the sin of the Sorcerers, and c. of Edom and 
other Nations, for which Jeremiah warns them not to hearken to 
them? Jer 27. 3, 9 A. It was a prophecying a lye unto them in 
the name of their false Gods, saving to them ye shall not serve 
the King of Babylon, which was the way to destroy them, ver 10, 
11. I say, in the name of false Gods: For they attended to 
dreams (not to your dreamers) as a way of Revelation whereby 
they were perswaded so to prophesy. Dreams are either, (1.) 
Natural, as Eccles, 5. 3 7. Isa. 29 8. Job 7. 14 (2) Or Divine, as 
the dreams of Nebuchadnezzar, Daniel, Joseph, and c Or (3) 
Diabolical, Deut. 13 1. 2 Zach. 10 2. The Diviners have told false 
dreams. But the dreams of the Sorcerers Jer. 27. 9, were not 
Divine, nor Natural, therefore Diabolical, and so from a false 
God. Here note, that Divining or Prophecying by diabolical and 
false dreams, is one way of Sorcery and Witchcraft: And that 
these false Prophets are Sorcerers, in undertaking to reveal 
things to come, by a false God, though what they reveal do not 
come to pass. They no doubt sought to their God for help in this 
matter, and went as far as they could. So I conceive all Baals 
four hundred and fifty Prophets, 1 King. 18. 26. were Sorcerers, 
in seeking with all earnestness to Baal to bring down fire from 
heaven (though they could not perform it) for they did all they 
could to oblige 

Page 115 

the Devil to help them; but their God wanted power, and so the 
wonder was not wrought at that time. These Prophets of Baal 
deserved therefore to dye by the Law. Exod. 22. 18. and by the 
Law. Deut. 18. 20. The Prophet that shall speak in the name of 
other Gods, even that Prophet shall dy. As also by the Law. Exod 
22 20 He that sacrificeth to any God, save unto the Lord only, he 
shall be utterly destroyed: For those sacrificed to Baal. But if any 
would thence conclude, that all the Heathen Sacrificing Priests 
should be put to death: I say, it follows not, for the Heathen 
among the Heathen know no better. But these did it in Israel, 
where they had the means to know the true God, and 
professedly endeavoured to draw men from the Lord unto Baal. 

Q 3 What was the sin of the Prophets in Judah, who are called 
dreamers, Jer. 29 8 9. and said to use divination, Jer. 14. 14. 
Ezek. 13. 6, 7, 9. 23. and in other Scriptures? A. They are not 
called, Mechashepim, Witches, as the false Prophets of the 
Heathen; yet they were very like them. As (1.) Both sorts used 
wicked divinations. (2) As Jannes and Jambres withstood Moses; 
so these withstood the counsel of God spoken by Jeremiah, Jers 
27 3. to 11. and 29 8, 9. (3.) The divinations of both sorts of 
Prophets were false, as to the matter of them; they divined a 
lye. Jer. 

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27. 10. with 29 8, 9. Ezek. 13 6, 7. (4) As the Heathen diviners 
were guided by dreamers, which came from a lying spirit. Jer. 

27. 9. Nor to the dreamers of dreams, and c. so these hearkened 
to false dreams which they dreamed, Jer. 29 8 which came by 
Inspiration or instigation of Satan. Yet they differed in this; 

Those prophesied in the name of a false God, but these 
prophesied a lye in the name of the true God. So that these 
deserved to dye by the Law. Deut. 18. 20. But the Prophet which 
shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have not 
commanded him to speak, even that Prophet shall dye Q 4 What 
were the Witchcrafts Jehu charged Jezebel with? 2 King 9 22. A. 
1. Either they were some practices of Witchcraft she used, not 
expresly mentioned in Scripture; or they were her protecting and 
providing for, and maintaining of Baals Prophets who were 
Witches, and her making their cause her own; as see, 1 Kings 
16, 31. and 18. 19 and 19 1, 2 She seems to be guilty of both. 1 
King 21. 25 26 She made the Prophets of Baal's Sin her own. As 
David is said to slay Uriah, when he did it not in his own person; 
but contrived how it should be done by others. And we may note 
that one reason why the false Prophetess in Thyatira is called 
Jezebel, is, because she called her self a Prophetess, and taught 
the people to eat things sacrificed to Idols; which 

Chapter 14 

Page 117 

was thereby to commit Idolatry. So that Ahabs Jezebel might be 
one of the Devils Prophetesses among the Israelites, and so be 
guilty of Witchcrafts that way; as a teacher of Idolatrous 
worshipping Baal. And we may note that the false Gods had their 
female Prophetesses and Diviners as well as Males, as we see the 
Witch at Endor. CHAPTER. XIV. Having spoken of the Scripture 
use of those evils condemned, Deut. 18. 10, 11. And of the 
persons charged with those abominations, we may hence see 
who those Witches, Sorcerers, Diviners and c. among the 
Heathen were, viz. they were a sort of Priests and Prophets of 
the Heathen Gods, who had a more special dedication and 
approaches to them, than the ordinary sort of Heathen had, 
whereby they obtained or at least endeavoured to obtain special 
help from those Gods, who were indeed the Devils. 1. Note, they 
were reckoned among the Priests and Prophets of those Idol 
Gods, as 1 Sam. 6. 2. The Philistans called for their Priests and 
diviners. And Jer. 27. 9, 10. they are commanded not to hearken 
to their Prophets, nor Diviners, nor Enchanters, nor Sorcerers or 
Witches. So when Josiah put away the Priests of the false Gods, 
he together with them put away them that had familiar Spirits, 
Wizards, Teraphim 

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and Idols, 2 King. 23. 5,10, 14. And when the ten Tribes are 
condemned for their heathenish Idolatries, and Sacrificing their 
Children through the fire; their divinations and enchantments are 
reckoned with these abominations, 2 King. 17. 10, 11, 12, 16, 

17. And the false Prophets of the Jews in Chaldia, though they 
prophecyed by the true God, yet prophecying falsely, are called 
Diviners, Jer. 29. 8,9. Though they pretended a Warrant from 
Jehovah, because of their likeness to the heathen Prophets and 
diviners. So Zech. 10 2. Mich. 3. 5,6, 7. Those Prophets are 
called Diviners 2. Hence as Gods people were to have recourse to 
the Lords Priests and Prophets, to seek and know the mind of 
God, and to obtain help from him by them, 2 Chron. 20. 20. Mai. 
2.7 1 King. 22. 7. So the Devil had his Priests and prophets by 
whom the people did enquire, and to whom they came in difficult 
cases, as to the God of Ekron, 2 King. 1. 2. So Pharaoh, 
Nebuchadnezer, Belshazer and c. Send for their wisemen and 
Sorcerers to consult with and help in their great cases; as the 
Servants of the Lord sent to their wise men, the Priests and 
Prophets of the most High God, to consult with and help in their 
difficult cases. Note, All the Heathens were worshippers of the 

Devil, 1 Cor. 10. 20. Yet all were not Sorcerers, diviners, 
soothsayers, and c. but some peculiar ones. So Balaam among 
the Midianites, was a Soothsayer or diviner, 

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and a Prophet, Josh. 13. 22 with 2 Pet. 2.2. Baal had his 
prophets four hundred and fifty, 1 King. 12. 22. And the Prophets 
of Egypt, Isa. 19.3. are called Charmers, Wizards and c. to whom 
they sought. As among Gods worshippers all are not Prophets, 1 
Cor. 12 29. 3. As the gifts and attainments of the Lords Prophets 
were differing, and so their operations, as 1 Cor. 12 4, 5, 6. So 
Satan, who is the god of this world, doth act like the most high, 
in distributing his gifts, and c. to his devoted Servants. As had 
Moses and Aaron, the gifts of miracles, so Satan had the 
magicians of Egypt that shall come by counterfeit or seeming 
miracles, as near or like to Gods Prophets as he can. Hath the 
Lord his Prophets to prophesy of things to come? So Satan hath 
in some degree like them, who shall give a sign or a wonder that 
some times shall come to pass, Deut. 13.1,2, 3. Did the Lord 
reveal himself to some of his Servants by dreams? So Satan 
reveals himself to some of his prophets by dreams at some 
times, as Deut. 13. 1. If there arise a prophet or a dreamer of 
dreames. So the Sorcerers of the Heathen, Jer. 27. 9. had their 
dreams or dreamers. Did the Lord give to some the gift of 
interpretating dreams, as to Joseph and Daniel? So Satan had his 
officers that pretended at least a skill to interpret dreams, as 
Dan 2 7. Did the Lord call Abraham and his Priest to Sacrifice his 
Son Isaac, Gen. 22 2. So Satan had 

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his Priests by whom the Heathen did Sacrifice their Sons and 
Daughters to him; and cause them to pass through the fire, and 
c. Lev. 18. 21. Psal. 106 35, 36, 37, 38. And this may be the 
reason why causing Children to pass through the fire is so often 
in Scripture mentioned with Witches and Witchcraft. Because this 
was one abominable way whereby the Sorcerers Sacrificed, to 
their Devil gods, to implore their help. And as the Lord did more 
freely and familiarly reveal himself and his counsel to some more 
than others: As to Moses Exod 33. 11. To whom the Lord spake 
face to face, as a man speaketh to his friend So Satan had some 
of these his devoted Servants, to whom he was more open and 
familiar in converse. And such were those that had a familiar 
Spirit to appear at their call as the woman at Endor, by her 
familiar Spirit divining, brings up the counterfeit Samuel. And as 
the people did seek unto Moses, and such Prophets of the Lord 
as had more especial acquaintance with the Lord. So the heathen 

did seek unto those that had these familiar Spirits, as persons 
that had more especial intimacy with their gods than themselves 
had. Hereupon the Lord strictly forbids the Israelites seeking 
unto such, Lev. 19. 31. and 20. 6. Isa. 8. 19. And from this 
intimacy between the Magicians and their god, and Satan their 
god, being as it were, at their call or beck; she that had a 
familiar Spirit is called Bagnalath Ob, 1 Sam. 

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28. 7. rendred, that hath a familiar Spirit, but if signifies a 
mistress of Ob: The spirit being subservient to the Witch, as if 
she were his mistress. And hereupon it is that Writers speak of 
Witches being in Covenant with Satan, explicit or implicit; 
because Satan is so ready to act at the call of a Witch: as to 
make or bring frogs real or seeming, and other things at the 
Magicians of Egypts endeavour, and to bring up Gods Elohim, i e 
Spirits invisible, likeness or shapes out of the earth, at the call of 
the Witch at Endor. But some have denyed all such famaliarity 
with the Devil, because say they, The Devil being a Spirit there 
cannot be such commerce or intimacy between Men and Spirits, 
as amounts to a Covenant engagement between them? To which 
I answer, there may be a covenant engagement between Men 
and Spirits. For, 1. There may be a Covenant between God and 
man: All Israel was in Covenant with God, Deut. 29. 12, and c. 
That thou shouldest enter into Covenant with the Lord thy God. 
And all Gods people did make a Covenant with God by Sacrifice, 
Psal. 50. 5. And before Moses and Aaron wrought their Miracles 
before Pharaoh, they were not only in covenant with God, but 
God had especially covenanted with, or promised to them, that 
upon their doing as he commanded and directed them, these 

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effects should follow, Exod 7. 10. and c. Why then may not men 
be in covenant with Satan who is but a finite Spirit? And as an 
effect and token of it come after the working of Satan with all 
power and signs and lying wonders 2 Thes. 2. 9. 2. The Lord 
forbids his people making a Covenant with the Heathen Gods, 
Exod. 23.32. Thou shalt make no covenant with them, nor with 
their Gods, that is, with the Devils, Deut. 32.17 If there had 
been no danger of Israels making such Covenants, they would 
not have had such a prohibition. 3. Satan discoursing with the 
Man Christ Jesus, Math. 4 8, 9 Offers to make a bargain or 
covenant with Him, wherein he promiseth Quid pro Quo. Satan 
offers on his part to give all the kingdoms of the World, and the 
Glory of them; and the condition he proposeth on Christs part, 

is, That Christ shall fall down and worship him. Had our blessed 
Saviour agreed to these propositions there had been a bargain; 
but that was not possible, for when the Prince of this world came 
to our Saviour, he found nothing in him; that is, no matter for 
his temptations to work upon, Job. 14. 30. But alas, how many 
wicked men and woman are there in the world, that would accept 
of such bargains? Some have been so set, upon obtaining their 
desired ends, that to have their wills, they will do as he said in 
the Poet. 

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Flectere si nequeo superos Acheronta movebo. If I cannot obtain 
my wish and will from God, I will to Hell to fetch it thence. And if 
persons are prepared for it, and Satan sees it as interest, he will 
offer conference with them, as he did with Eve, Gen. 3. And 
readily promise them all the world can afford them according to 
their hearts desire, to the uttermost of his power, and make no 
scruple of lying, and if mankind believes him, Satan profers some 
condition to be performed on mans part, as he did to Christ; If 
thou wilt worship me. And when mankind believes and accepts 
the seeming good desired and offered, upon performance of the 
conditions required, here's a Covenant explicit or implicit. But 
say some, what ever Satan is bid to do or reveal by a Witch, 
cannot he do the same things without a Witch? A. 1. Satan hath 
done great things without Witches, as in the afflicting Job, and 
the possessed, as abovesaid. 2. Yet Satan doth also do and 
discover things by magicians, and c. as in the cases of the 
Egpytian Sorcerers, and woman at Endor, above expressed. And 
this may proceed, (1) Partly from the righteous Judgment of 
God, giving Satan both permission and commission at such 
times, to do great things in punishment to those that seek unto 
him in that way. As when Ahab goes to the Prophets that were 
not the Prophets of Jehovah or the Lord, 1 King. 22. 7, 

Page 124 

but of the Devil, to enquire, whether he shall go to Ramoth 
Gilead: The Lord gives the Devil a commission to deceive Ahab, 
who by going to these Prophets went to the Devil, 1 King 22. 20, 
21, 22, 23. Who will perswade Ahab And a Spirit said, I will 
perswade him,— I will be a lying Spirit in the mouth of his 
Prophets. Now hear Satans commission: Thou shalt perswade 
him and prevail also: go forth and do so. (2) Satan may in pollicy 
do many things (the Lord permitting) at the devotion of his 
Votarys, which he will not do at other times if he could, because 
hereby he carrys on his design of destroying Souls; both of his 
Votarys, and of them that go unto them. For there be many that 

have so much natural Conscience in them, and so much 
aversation from the Devil, and horror at his presence, that they 
will not seek immediately to the Devil, who yet will be drawn to 
seek unto Wizards, and such as have familiar Spirits, and so fall 
into the Snare of the Devil to the ruine of their Souls. We know 
Satan is called the God of the World, and by imitating the Lords 
methods in shewing mercy to man, he seemed to the Heathen to 
be like the Most High: As Lucifer said, Isa. 14. 12, 14. Had the 
Lord his Ark Temple, and c where to give answers to his people? 
So Satan had his Temples and Oracles, and Priests, whereby to 
give answers to his Worshippers, as at Ekron, at Delphos, and 

Page 125 

elsewhere; see Acts 14 13. Did the Lord require faith in them 
that came to him? So Satan requires especial faith in them that 
seek to him for help. Doth the Lord hearken to the voice of a 
man in working wonders? Josh. 10. 14. So Satan will hearken to 
the voice of his Magicians, and c. Doth the Lord require particular 
actions to be done by his Servants, when they work wonders in 
his Name? As Aaron must cast down his rod at one time, smite 
the cock with it at another time, speak to the rock at another 
time. Elijah prays at one time on his face between his knees, at 
another time other wise, 1 King. 18 42. So Satan had his various 
ceremonies, words and actions to be observed by those that 
obtained special help from him. As Charmings, Mutterings, 
Peepings, speaking low, and c Isa. 8. 19 and 29. 4 And divers 
Sacrifices made to him, whereby he was honoured by the 
Heathen as a God. Deut. 32. 47. And Satan being thus served by 
them, did also some things for them, and'that not only in way of 
operation, as for the Egyptian Magicians; but also to some he did 
reveal truly some future events; as appeareth by the warning 
given, Deut. 13. 1, 2, 3. where it's shewed that a Prophet in the 
name, and by the help of a false God, may foretel a Sign that 
shall come to pass. And doubtless Belzebub did it at Ekron 
Sometimes foretel truly future evens, or else Ahaziah 

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would not have sent to him to know whether he should recover 
at that time or not. But the essence of their being a Witch or 
Sorcerer did not consist in their obtaining the desired assistance 
from their God; but rather in them putting themselves into that 
way of endeavoring to get help of their Gods. For the 
Astrologers, and c of Babylon are called Sorcerers and Witches, 
Isa 47.12. Though by their Inchantments and Sorceries they 
could not prove themselves. And the Prophets of Edom, and 
other heathens, Jer. 27.3, 9. are called Sorcerers for prophecying 

by Satan, though they prophecyed falsely. And so I conceive the 
Four hundred and fifty Prophets of Baal, did abuse Sorcery or 
Inchantments in their invocation of Baal, and using actions they 
esteemed acceptable to him, that they might procure him fire 
from Heaven to consume their Sacrasice, although they could not 
obtain it. 1 King 18. 22. to 30. And so justly deserved death by 
the Law. Exod. 22. 18 and by the Law. Exodus 22 20. For 
Sacrificing to a false God. Thus we see who were the Witches, 
among the Heathen: We may then query, Who were the Witches 
among the Israelites that were to be put to death? A. 1. Those 
that having the knowledge of the true God, or at least the means 
whereby they might know him, did so far forsake the true God, 
as to sue unto, and depend upon the 

Page 127 

Devil, or another God, as the Heathen Priests and Prophets that 
were Sorcerers did. As by having a familiar spirit as the Witch at 
Endor had; or by using Witchcrafts as Manasseh did. These as 
Apostates from God, and Votaries of the Devil, were to dye by 
the Laws. Exod. 22. 18,20. As is said of Baals Prophets. And such 
if they prophecyed in the name of those false Gods (whether the 
Prophesie were true or false,) were to dye by the Law. Deut. 18. 
20. The Prophet that shall presume to speak in the name of 
other Gods, that Prophet shall dye. 2. Those persons who did 
prophecy a falsehood in the name of the Lord; or prophecy in his 
name when he sent them not, are called Diviners, though they 
pretended to speak (not in the name of false Gods, but) in the 
name of the true God; as, Jer. 28. 8, 9. Mich. 3. 7. Though they 
are not indeed called Witches or Sorcerers, but Diviners, which 
note a crime near to the former. Because they were so like unto 
the Diviners of the Heathen in prophecying falsly, and were alike 
capital offenders by that Law. Deut. 18. 20, 22. The Prophet 
which shall presume to speak a word in my name, which I have 
not commanded him to speak, shall dye, and c. So that although 
they are not called Witches, but Diviners, yet they were to dye 
by the Law, as well as the other. Here then we may observe, 
who is to be, esteemed a Capital Witch among Christians 

Page 128 

viz. those that being brought up under the means of the 
knowledge of the true God, yet being in their right mind, or free 
use of their reason, do knowingly and willingly depart from the 
true God, so as to devote themselves unto and seek for their 
help from another God, or the Devil, as did the Devils Priests, 
and Prophets of old that were Magicians. The end of such 
devoting to another God is for some supposed benefit. As, 1. To 

get help from him; So Ahaz seems to be a Witch or Sorcerer, in 
that he sacrificed to the God of Syria, that he might obtain help 
by them 2 Chron. 28. 3, 23. His burning his Children in the fire, 
after the Heathen abomination, is also a sin reckoned with 
Witchcraft; see, Deutr 18. 11. He was if not a Witch in sacrificing 
himself, yet at least one that did seek after Wizards and the like, 
in Sacrifice for him. 2. Another end in seeking help, is thereby to 
do strange things, as did the Egyptian Sorcerers as above- 
shewed.And such a Sorcerer the beast, Rev. 13. 13,14 
prophecyed of, seems to be, for he maketh fire to come down 
from Heaven, on the Earth in the sight of men And this was the 
work of Satan upon Jobs Sheep and Servants, Job 1. 16. 3. 
Another end is for the discovery of Se crets; as above shewed, 
from Deut. 13.1, 2,3. and 1 Sam 28. 4. Another end is to 
prevent or remove 

Page 129 

some evil felt, or feared; as the Sorcerers of Babylon, that by 
their Sorceries sought to prevent, or save them from the evils 
coming upon them. And though they did not obtain the help 
aimed at from their Gods, yet they are stiled Sorcerers, Isa. 47. 
12, 13, 14. and 44 25. 2. I say, brought up under the means of 
the knowledge of the true God; for though many Witches were 
among the Heathen Nations, yet they were not to be put to 
death, because they knew not the true God, they knew no 
better. But as for thee, saith God, The Lord thy God hath not 
suffered thee so to do; and there shall not be found among you 
an Enchanter, Witch, and c. Deut. 18. 9, 10, 14. And therefore 
the Lord made this Law, as an hedge to keep his people from 
going away from him to Devils, to Gods whom they knew not, 
and whom their fathers feared not, Deut. 32. 16, 17. And so this 
Law hath some affinity with that capital Law, the next verse, but 
one step, Exod 22. 20. He that Sacrificeth to any God, save unto 
Jehovah only, shall be put to death. So that Daniel did well in 
seeking to save the Babylonian Wise men, though Witches, 

Dan. 214 and c. For they fell not under the Law. Exod. 22. 18. 

But being ignorant of the true God, needed to live and be 
instructed, that thereby they might be made sensible of their evil 
practices, and turn unto the living God. 3. The object sought 
unto is the Devil, or 

Page 130 

another God. Some of the Heathen did not seek to the Devil, as 
a Devil, that is, as a malicious, wicked, and unclean spirit: but as 
to their God whom they thought ought to be Worshipped by 
them. And some of the Israelites had an opinion of many Gods, 

as Ahax, 2 Chr 28. 23. Manasseh and Amaziah, Chap 25. 14 and 
33 3, 4, 6. And so sacrificed to the Heathen Gods, as well as to 
their own. And this was very abominable to the Lord to be 
ranked thus with Idols and Devils, Isa. 42. 8. Jehovah will not 
give his Glory to another. 4. The person I say, that hath the free 
use of their reason; hereby are exempted from the guilt of this 
crime, persons possessed or obsessed of the Devil, who did by 
the power of Satan, strange things, as breaking chains, and 
Lunatick persons, upon whom the Devil took advantage by 
reason of their Lunacy. 5. They devote themselves to Satan, or 
their other God, and to seek to him; which was done divers 
ways; as by enchantments, charmings, peepings, muttering, 
sacrificing, cutting themselves, prayers, and c. And though of 
later times Satan as a cunning Fisher changeth his baits, yet still 
all that seek to him, as his peculiar Votaries, have their 
Ceremonies, Ordinances by which Satan is invocated and 
worshipped. Here we must distinguish between those that go and 
seek to Satan immediately, and those that seek to him by the 
mediation of a 

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Wizard, and c. as Saul by the Witch at Exdor. The former sort 
only are called Witches, or dealers with familiar spirits: But the 
latter is a great sin prohibited and condemned, Lev. 19. 31. and 
20. 6. and elsewhere. 6. I say; do knowingly and willingly seek, 
and c. And here I excuse a tanto, though not a toto, those that 
ignorantly use charms, spells, writings or forms of words, and c 
being taught them by others, which are a kind of Witchcraft; but 
those that use them are not sensible, that they are but various 
ceremonies to invocate the Devil, and that the effects following 
these charms, and c. are done by the Devil. So some have pulled 
fish bones out of a wound, cured sooth ach, agues, warts, and 
stopped blood by such devillish means. Such have an implicit 
faith that the means used, shall produce the effect desired, but 
consider not how; and so are beguiled by the Serpent that lies in 
the grass unseen. I knew a man in the East, who professed the 
art of curing wounds, and stenching blood by form of words. I 
discoursed him about it, and he told me, he had been in the 
practice of it; and believed it to be the gift of healing given him 
from God, upon the use of some scripture words he used, as he 
had been taught by an Old woman, and had tried it upon 
himself; having cut his leg almost half through with an Adds, and 
only bound up the wound 

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with a cloth, and said over the wound those words, and without 
other means the wound was cured in a few days. I desired to 
hear the words, and he related them to me; and found him 
almost as ignorant in Scriptures, as an Heathen, and found he 
could not read Whereupon I informed him that part of his words 
were Scripture, and part not; and that those words upon which 
the greatest stress was laid in order to the cure, were a perverse 
addition to the Scriptures: a meet fiction of mans invention; and 
declared to him, that is any such healing followed upon such a 
form of words, it could not come from the efficacy of the words 
themselves, or from a divine concurrence working a wonder, 
because of those words, which were indeed a lye in the additions 
made; therefore if any vertue were in them, it came by the 
Devil, and so those words a kind of Sorcery. The man hereby 
seemed convinced of his error, and promised reformation. I do 
not believe this man was a Wizard (though in danger of it) 
because he did it ignorantly in misbelief. I fear some young 
persons through a vain curiosity to know their suture condition, 
have tampered with the Devils tools, so far that hereby one door 
was opened to Satan to play those pranks; Anno 1692. I knew 
one of the Afflicted persons, who (as I was credibly in formed) 
did try with an egg and a glass to 

Chapter 15 

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find her future Husbands Calling; till there came up a Coffin, that 
is a Spectre in likeness of a Coffin. And she was afterward 
followed with diabolical molestation to her death; and so dyed a 
single person A just warning to others, to take heed of handling 
the Devils weapons, lest they get a wound thereby. Another, I 
was called to pray with, being under sore fits and vexations or 
Satan. And upon examination I found she had tryed the same 
charm: and after her confession of it and manifestation of 
repentance for it, and our prayers to God for her, she was 
speedily released from those bonds of Satan. This iniquity though 
I take it not to be the Capital crime condemned, Exod. 22. 
Because such persons act ignorantly, not considering they 
hereby go to the Devil; yet borders very much upon it: and is too 
like Sauls going to the Witch at Endor, and Ahaziah sending to 
the God of Ekron to enquire. CHAPTER. XV. I proceed now to 
speak of some kinds of these Devilish artists not by an exact 
distribution of them into their several species. For though they 
are distinguished by several names and practices, yet they all 
agree in the general crime of Witchcraft, and being thereby as it 
were the Devils Priests and Prophets, depending upon his aid and 
oracles; so that he that is 

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of one kind may be also of another, or all the rest, according to 
their several ends for which and ways by which they make their 
applications to the Prince of darkness: and as he is pleased to 
communicate of his skill or power to the answering of their 
expectations for a reward of their dependance upon him. And as 
of old, they had several names, as Magicians, Diviners, and c. So 
of late times, they have their several names, and in part several 
kinds of skill, or power, as Conjurers, Astrologers, Cunning men; 
Mathematicians, Witches, and c. But all of them if they have their 
knowledge, or skill, or working by the Devil, are in Satans black 
list of Witches. Some such there have been who divine by 
representing a person, or coffin, or thing sought after in a 
looking glass, to discover to the person enquiring somewhat 
secret, or future. I have heard several credible Stories of such 
Conjurers; and shall relate one here that I suppose was never in 
Print. An ancient Woman related to me, That when she was a 
Maid, she had a curiosity to know who should be her Husband, 
and was informed of a Doctor that would shew Maids their future 
Husbands in a glass: To him therefore she went with her Money 
in her hand, to know who should be her Husband; and he 
carryed her to a great looking glass, where she saw a man in his 
full proportion whom she never saw before. And a while after 
met this man (represented in the glass) in the street, and having 
on the same 

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Cloaths he was represented with from bead to face; and soon 
after he came a Suitor to her, and she was Married to him, and 
was her Husband when she made this Relation. In this relation 
observe. 1. It was no doubt a truth, for she told me this in way 
of craving my advice, whether she had done well or evil in going 
to the Dr. and I told her, she did evil in going thereby to the 
Devil. 2. It was no delusion of her phantafie, or affection working 
toward any person; for it was one she never saw before, that 
was now shewed unto her. 3. The Dr. could not bring into the 
glass the shadow of a man absent and unknown, by any natural 
cause, or means by him used. Therefore it was from 
theDevil,who raised this Spectre in likeness of a man then 
unknown. 4. And the Dr. doing this frequently for his Money, 
must know he did it by a familiar Spirit, and therefore was a 
Conjurer in some league explicite, or implicite with Satan. And I 
have heard and read of other Stories of this kind very credible, 
which satisfy me, that this was not the only Conjurer in England. 
But it may be queried, Q. How could Satan foretal this woman 

who should be her Husband, it being then a future contingent 
thing? A. In this case, it might be easy for Satan to give a very 
probable conjecture; for the man was a Newfoundlander that 
came to England for a Wife, as directed by his friends unto this 

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young woman: And the Devil knew of his coming, he being at 
that time upon the Sea thitherwards, or newly come on shoat; 
and the Devil knew his errand, and the quality and conditions of 
both parties (as he is a discerning, peircing spirit;) and so knew 
it very probable to be a Match. And by this representation in the 
glass imposeth upon her Superstitious, ignorance, a kind of belief 
of a necessity to accept him when he came. But in other cases, 
its not so easy. Q. Here then we may enquire, How can the Devil 
know things to come? Is not this Gods prerogative? Isa 41. 22, 
23. A. Its true that the Lord alone knows things to come, so that 
neither man or Angel can know suture events, unless the Lord 
make them known, or afford means whereby the creature may 
attain to know them: Shew us things to come hereafter, that we 
may know that ye are Gods. Of that day and hout knoweth no 
man, no not the Angels of Heaven, Math. 24. 30. Rev. 5. 3, 4. 
None in heaven, or earth, or under the earth, was able to open 
the book (sealed with seven seals) and to loose the seales 
thereof. Many other Scriptures, speak of our ignorance of things 
and times to come, Prov. 27. 1. Eccl. 8. 7. and 6. 12. 2. Yet God 
affordeth means whereby men, who are far less discerning than 
Spirits, come to know many futurities certainly, and of others 
probably to guess, so as generally or for 

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the most part it proves according to mans foresight. A wise man 
fore-seeth the evil, Prov. 22. and 27. 12. 1. By visions and 
revelations and such like, to God revealed to Abraham and 
David, the conditions of their Posterity for a great while to come, 
2 Sam. 7. 19. 2. The Prophecyes, promises and threatnings in 
Scripture are a standing revelation of futurities, in matters 
religious, civil, political and natural, as the changes of seasons, 
and c. Gen 8. 22. 3. Many things are fore known by their causes. 
As that wood thrown into the fire will be burnt, and c. And thus 
many Physitians foresee the death of a person sick of an 
incurable disease, when neither they nor their relations are 
sensible of it. 4 Many things are fore known by the usual signes 
that go before them, which though they are not proper causes of 
the effects following, yet are concurrent with them. As when the 
Fig trees branch is tender Summer is nigh, Math. 24. 32. A red 
skie in the evening is a sign of a fair morning; and a red skie in 

the morning lowring of foul weather, and so it comes to pass, 
Math. 16. 1, 2, 3. Luk. 12. 54, 55, 56. 5. Some things men 
foresee very probable to come to pass, because themselves or 
others have intended and contrived how to bring them to pass. 

As Saul sore tells to Jabesh-Gilead; They shall have help to 
morrow by that time the Sun be 

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hot, 1 Sam. 11. 9 Because he intended and contrived it. 6. By 
observation and experience of the usual events of providence, in 
the way of Gods governing the world; a wise man fore knows 
probably at least, what will come to pass under like 
circumstances. And among men, one fore seeth things to come 
farther than another, as he excels another in prudence. As the 
prudent fore seeth, when the simple pass on and are punished, 
Prov. 22. 3. Or hath had a larger experience than another, Eccl. 

8. 5. A wise mans heart discerneth time and judgment. 1. In all 
the above mentioned ways, except the first, Satan hath the 
same advantage to know future events as man hath; and many 
advantages above man. (1.) As he is more knowing, wise, and of 
a larger understanding than man. (2.) In that as a Spirit, he 
pierces more into the insides and secrets of persons, actions and 
things. He cannot know the heart of man immediately, that is 
Gods prerogative, Jer. 17. 10. Yet so far as the heart discovers it 
self by its operations, upon the senses, external and internal, and 
other members of the body, Satan will sand it out. (3.) By the 
swiftness and multitude of those Legions of unclean Spirits; they 
are present in all Companies, Counsils, Cabals, and affairs of the 
Children of men, even with the Sons of God when they worship 
God; and with the 

Page 139 

Sons of men in all the compass of the earth. Job 1. 6, 7. (4) 

They have their experiences of five thousand years standing. (5.) 
When they intend and contrive any design upon the children of 
men, they are not in danger of being prevented by death (as 
men often are) for Spirits cannot dye; and so more probably 
foretel the events of their own counsels. And by all the means 
and advantages above-said, Satan can fore-see future contingent 
events much farther off than man can, and so foretell the Lord 
suffering) a sign or wonder which shall after come to pass. 2. 
Satan hath also the advantage of foreknowing, and fore shewing 
future things by some way of divine revelation at some times, for 
the punishment of men. So God by some means (the way 
whereby to us unknown) lets the Devil know the death of Saul 
and his Sons, and reveal it to Saul for his punishment in going to 

seek to Satan; and so Satan knows the way to destroy Ahab, and 
that from God; and contrives a way to bring it about, viz. by 
being a lying Spirit in the mouth of Ahabs Prophets. 3. Yea, the 
Lord succeeds the diabolical divinations of the King of Babylon, to 
prophecy success unto him against Judah, for the punishment of 
Judahs sins. Ezek. 21. 18. to 25. From this place observe, (1.) 
That the King of Babylon intending War against Rabbath and 

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Jerusalem, knew not which to go first unto. (2.) Therefore he 
useth divination by arrows, by consulting an Image orTeraphim, 
and by looking into the liver of some beasts (always used by the 
heathen) so that if the divination favour the right hand, he will 
go first to Jerusalem: If the left, to Rabbah. (3) These divinations 
had no natural power in them to direct them, but they were 
means whereby they enquire of their Gods, that is the Devil (4) 
The Lord so over rules the divination that is the Devils Oracle by 
the Image, and c that the answer shall be, Go to Jerusalem and 
prosper; and accordingly he goes and prospers (5) The Lord 
grants such success (not appointing the sin) unto these devillish 
divinations for the punishment of his apostate people. But when 
ever the Lord pleaseth, he disappoints all the Devils Ordinances. 
So that the Devil cannot know, or cannot discover to his Vassals 
what shall come to pass. Isa. 44. 25. He frustrateth the tokens of 
the lyars, and maketh diviners mad, and maketh their knowledge 
foolish. 1. Then Inchantments, Sorceries, Astrologers, and c. 
shall not be able to save from evil, or to profit, Isa. 47. 12, 13, 
14. 4. If all the ways above-said so fail the Devil, that he cannot 
foretel what shall be hereafter, he hath an art by the ambiguity 
of his answers, to salve his credit, be the event which way it will. 
So 1 King. 22. 6. He tells Ahab; 

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The Lord shall deliver it into the hand of the King; but doth not 
determine which King, whether of Syria, or Israel. So in his 
Oracles of old to Cresus. Cresus Halyn penetrans magnam 
disperdet opum vim. Like the Scphism used against King Edward 
the Second. To shed King Edwards Blood refuse to fear, I count it 
good. And this shall suffice to speak of this kind of Divining 2. 
Another sort of Diviners are they that reveal secrets, as where 
Stollen Goods are hid, or how Persons and Vessels do at Sea, or 
in other Countries, which they pretend to know by the Stars, and 
Positions of the Heavens; but indeed by a familiar spirit. These 
are by way of distinction called, Astrologers, Mathematicians, 
and c. Such, Isai. 47. 13 are called, Heberei Shamajim, 

Observers of the Heavens, (translated Astrologers) And 

Hachotsim Bechochabim, Beholders of the Stars, or Star gazers. 
But whatever men pretend, the Stars cannot reveal such secrets. 
1. Suppose two men go to Sea in the same Ship, from England 
to Barbadoes, and one dyeth, and another liveth; they go out, 
continue at Sea, and come to the Island both of them under the 
same position of the Stars. How then can the Heavenly Bodies 
tell the Astrologer in England, that one man is dead, and the 
other alive? So Perkin and Paulet steal each an Horse out of the 
same Stable, at the same 

Page 142 

time; Perkin carries his stollen Horse to Bristol, and Paulet 
carries his to Exeter, both at one time; how can the Stars direct 
the Mathematician to find one Horse at Exeter, and the other in 
Bristol? they cannot, but the Devil can. 2. The Stars have their 
regular motion continued the same, according to the Law God 
laid upon them at first, Psa. 19. 4, 5, 6. and 104 19. The fixed 
Stars continue in their orb, and the planets in theirs, whether 
men steal or be honest, go abroad or stay at home, are sick or 
well. They are for signs and seasons; but not to point out the 
arbitrary actions of or contingent events upon men. Mr. Lee, the 
late learned Minister of the Gospel in New Bristol, related a 
credible Story of a Gentleman in Hartford-shire, 'Who had 
studied the Rules of Astrology, and being much urged, tryed by 
them to find for his friend a stolen Horse; but when by all the 
rules of his art, he could find nothing, sat musing with his eyes 
shut, and just such a Horse as the man described, was 
represented to his Imagination, going with two men into a 
Stable, at such an Inn, in such a Town: He directs the man to go 
thither: he did so, and found his Horse, and returned to thank 
the artist. The Astrologer told him it was the Devil suggested it 
to his Imagination, and thereupon resolved never more to 
meddle with that art.' 

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3. The insufficiency of these rules of themselves appear, in that 
those that seek for help by these artists, must have a belief, that 
they can help them, or else they cannot discover any thing to 
them. But if it were by pure art, the rules would be as effectual 
when people come without such a faith, as with it. 'I knew a very 
pious Matron, who when she was young in England, had lost 
some goods, and in her ignorance, went to a cunning man to find 
them. He told her he could not help her, unless she did believe 
he could. She answered, she believed in God, (or hoped in God) 
he could. Nay replied he, if you believe in God, I cannot help 
you. And so she returned without her goods, but with a 

conviction that she had gone to the Devil for help, and was not 
aware of it. Another relation like this, Mr. Sherman of Boston told 
me concerning himself. 'He being in England was unawares 
brought into the Company of such a Mathematician, to whom 
diverse came and gave him Money, to tell them, how, and where 
their friends and vessels were, that went over sea. And he alter 
he had raised his Scheams, and made his calculations, gave them 
such informations as they were satisfyed in. And at length, 
understanding Mr. Sherman was a New England man, asked, if 
he would know the state of his friends in New England. Sherman 
replyed, there were none of his Art 

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'in New England: (Oh that it may be always so said of us!) but he 
had heard of this profession: it was said, they could inform none 
that did not believe they could help them: And he did not 
believe. The Artist replyed, he did it by pure Art, and would have 
Sherman try him, which at last he did. Tell me, said he, where 
my Father and Mother now are, and how they do The Astrologer 
asked him many questions, and after he had tryed the rules of 
his Art, said; They were both alive in good health in Boston in 
New England. This is not so, said Sherman, for they were both 
dead before I came thence; and I told you, that you could not 
help me unless I did believe.' These two Relations agree with 
what Mr. Perkins urgeth against Judicial Astrologers. Chap. 3 p 
80. Viz. That they cannot help those that come doubting of their 
ability, or in a way to tempt the Astrologer. 3. A third sort of 
these Diviners are such as pretend to tell persons their Fortunes 
(as they call it) or future Condition by looking into their hands. I 
have been acquainted with some who have acquainted me with 
strange futurities, these Fortune tellers have informed them of, 
which after came to pass; such as man could not foretel but by 
the Devil, no nor the Devil, but by some Judicial Act of God over 
ruling their Predictions, as he did the 

Page 145 

divinations of Nebachadnezzar. Ezek. 21. 21. above mentioned. 
The vanity and falshood of the pretended Art of Chyromancy to 
predict by, appeareth. (1) In that there is no such variety of 
strokes or marks in the hands or faces of men and women, as 
there be variety of conditions in mans life which they pretend to 
find out by these marks. (2) If there were any such predicting 
Characters stamped by nature upon the bodies of persons; these 
Fortunetellers are the most unlikely to know them; they being 
generally illiterate, ignorant of nature, art, religion, 
reason, history, and experience, and scarce a degree above bruit 

beasts. Let all be warned then of the great sin and snare that is 
in hearkening to such Soothsayers; the scope of their profession 
being to draw men off from dependance upon God and his 
guiding Providence in obedience to his Scripture Commands, with 
faith resting upon his promises, to lean upon the predictions of 
Fortune tellers, who whether they prophecy good or evil, ensnare 
those exceedingly that enquire of them: for if they prophecy 
good, they are eagerly lifted up with doubtful expectations of its 
accomplishment. If it be evil, they are hanging upon a wrack of 
doubtful fears and terrors which rob them of the comfort of their 
times of health and prosperity, contrary to the advice given 
them, Eccl. 2.24 and 3.12,22. These above-named use 
Witchcrafts in way of divination. 

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4 There be a fourth sort, whose exercise is more in operation, 
viz. such as cast a mist before the eyes of others by their 
Witchcrafts who are alluded unto, Gal. 3 1. by the Greek word 
Bascaino quasi phaesi Kaino. They have their eyes so held or 
darkened, that they cannot see things as they are; So the false 
teachers did bemist the eyes of the Galatians, viz the eyes of 
their minds, that they could not see Christ Crucifyed before their 
eyes. Alike unto these are they who raise the Devil, or Spectres 
in divers forms, doing strange things thereby. Of this sort was 
Dr. Lamb the notorious Conjurer, killed by the Mobile in London, 
in Charles the first his Reign. Mr. Baxter of Spirits, Chap. 7 p. 
155-156. Relates a well attested Story of Dr. Lamb, his raising in 
the middle of a room, a Tree, little follows, apes, baskets, and c. 
all which soon vanished. I refer the Reader to Mr. Baxter, for the 
Story at large. 5. Another sort are such as they call white 
Witches; that by spells, charms, and c will cure Diseases, and 
that more easily than men can, and fetch fish bones out of mens 
hands, and c. (1) Note here that the Devil hath more skill in the 
knowledge of all healing medicines than any man: and more 
ability and dexterity to convey them insensibly unto any sore, 
than any mortal creature. (2) That some have such an ambition 
to excel in Physick, and curing variety of wounds and diseases, 
that they will rather 

Chapter 16 

Page 147 

go to the Devil, then fail of their desired skill and honour 
thereby. Many credible Histories I have heard of this kind; but I 
spare to enlarge in these things which have been so fully handled 
by Perkins, and others. CHAPTER. XVI. I come now to speak 

concerning those that are called Black Witches, or Malefick 
Witches, who by their enchantments do call in the Devils aid, for 
revenge, to do hurt to the bodies, and health of their neighbours, 
or to their cattle, goods, and the like. These are the persons 
commonly called Witches, and against whom the spirits of men 
and the laws of men are most bent, for their prosecution and 
punishment. Now that: I have concerning such to say, I shall 
comprehend in the ensuing Propositions. Prop. 1. There have 
been many evils that have befallen man and beast, which have 
been ungroundedly ascribed to Witchcraft, and so to Witches, 
which proceed from other causes: As from natural operations 
tho' hidden from those that so suspect: or from the hand of God 
immediately, or from the hand of Satan without the concurrence 
of man kind; as hath been in part shewed already in this enquiry 
above. Should an herd of Swine run violently down a steep place 
into the Sea in these days and perish in the waters, as did the 
Gergesens Swine, 

Page 148 

Math. 8. 32. People would conclude they perished by Witchcraft; 
and yet there was no such cause of the destruction. Prop. 2. 
Melancholly and Imagination hath fancied many things to 
proceed from Witches, when there is no ground for it. Prop. 3. 
Many impossible things for Witches, or the Devil to do by them, 
are related to be done by Witches: As the transmutation of 
bodies from men to beasts, and c. The going in Spirit to places 
far distant, and leaving their bodies behind; as if the Devil could 
separate the Soul from the body, and restore it again at 
pleasure, which is to ascribe to him a divine power to restore the 
dead. Such things are either devised fictions, or abuses of the 
imaginations of them that so say of themselves: they, being only 
laid in a trance or dream, and so conceiting a change in them 
that never was. So some have affirmed they have been carryed 
many hundred miles through the air, to remote places and 
brought back again in an hour or two, which cannot be without a 
miracle; for so swift a motion through the air, would take away 
the breath of a person so transported, without an almighty 
power to sustain them. Prop. 4 It must be granted that there is 
no clear instance of any such Malefick or Black Witch in 
Scriptures. The Magicians of Egypt or Babyion, or those 
mentioned Act. 8. 9, 10, 11. and 13. 8, 9, 10. Jer. 27. 9. Isa. 47. 
Dan. 2. and 

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4. and 5. chap, are not charged with any such crimes. The only 
instance I remember given of such an one in Scripture is 

Balaam: but he cannot be proved to be such an one. (1) Its 
pleaded that Balak sent to him to come; For I wot, (faith he) that 
be whom thou cursest is cursed. And this indeed shews what an 
opinion Balak had of him, Numb 22, 6 But when Balaam answers 
the messengers, he tells them; As the Lord, i. e. Jehovah, shall 
speak to me, I will bring you word: And Jehovah refuseth to give 
me leave: And the word that God putteth in my mouth, that shall 
I speak, v 8, 13, 38 So that whatever opinions Balaam might 
have of plurality of Gods, yet he owns he could not curse Israel 
but by the true God. See Numb 23 1, 3 with Deut. 23. 4, 5. Josh. 
24 9, 10. The Scripture shews that Balaam sought not to curse 
Israel, but by the everliving God. (2) And if it be said, that 
Balaam saying, There is no inchantment against Jacob, neither 
divination against Israel, Cap. 23. 23. Intimateth, That there 
may be inchantment and divination also against other people; 
yet it doth not signify that Balaam used to curse any without the 
assistance of the true God. For he saith, v. 8. How shall I curse 
whom God hath not cursed or how shall I defy, whom the Lord 
hath not defied? He speaks as a man convinced, that the power 
of all false Gods was unable to bring a curse without Gods leave. 
And if Balak would give him an house full of Silver and Gold, 

Page 150 

he saith, he cannot go beyond the word of the Lord, or Jehovah, 
my God, to do less or more. Where note, that Balaam openly 
professeth to these heathen, that Jehovah is his God, and him he 
will obey, Numb 22. 18. And when the Angel of Jehovah 
opposeth him, he submits so far to him as to offer, if it 
displeased him, he would go back again. And when he comes to 
sacrificing, still it is to Jehovah. For he said, Chap 23, 3. after he 
had offered, Peradventure Jehovah will come and meet me, and 
c. and where God met him, He said unto him, i. e. to Jehovah. I 
have offered upon every altar a bullock and a ram, and this was 
repeated again, and still Balaam went to meet Jehovah, and 
Jehovah met him once and again, and put a word in his mouth. 
And Balaam spake the word Jehovah put into his mouth: and 
when Balaam saw it pleased Jehovah to bless Israel, Chap. 24. 

1. All the circumstances of the place shew that all his addresses 
were unto the living God, that by him he might procure such a 
curse upon Israel, which might do more against Israel then all 
the armies of Balak could do. Q. Why then is Balaam called a 
Soothsayer or Diviner, and said to use Inchantments? and what 
are those Enchantments? and why so called? A. These 
inchantments were the Sacrifices mentioned, Chap 24. which 
were offered to the true God For its said, He went not as at other 
times to seek for Enchantments: This plainly refers 

Page 151 

to the times when he sacrificed as above-said. 
Heb.Chepagnam,bepagnam, i. e. not this time as the former 
time; namely the times when he sacrificed. Thus Ainsworth in 
locum; all his former altars and sacrifices were by the art of 
inchantment, or observing fortunes. But how these were 
inchantments, seeing they were not as the heathen 
inchantments to a false God, and that sacrificing was an 
Ordinance of God, is a difficulty to understand. But I conceive 
they are so called, because Balaam did pervert the end and use 
of Gods Ordinance, and therein imitate the Heathen. For God had 
said to him, Thou shalt not curse the people, for they are blessed 
Yet Balaam by these Sacrifices will try to curse them. So heathen 
nations are said to do, before they warred against any people to 
endeavour by prayers, sacrifices and enchantments to turn the 
favour of God from them. Before the Heathen Romans Besieged 
any City, their Priests, called out the God, under whose tutelage 
the City was, that he would forsake the people, Temples and holy 
things, and be Provost unto them, and accept of their City, and 
c. vowing to him, if he would so do, to honour him with Temples, 
and c. And then offered Sacrifices to the Dictator or Emperour, 
devoted, or cursed the Enemies Cities and Armies, that they 
might be filled with fear, terror, and c. Balaam acts his like. 

These and like the Charmers, Maimony speaks of, who whisper 
over a wound, or read a verse 

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out of the Bible: likewise he that readeth over an infant, that it 
may not be frighted; or that layeth the Bible, or the Phylacteries 
upon a child that it may sleep: Such faith he, are In. chanters or 
Charmers, because they make the words of the Scripture, 
medicine for the body, whereas they are not, but medicine for 
the Soul. So Balaam makes a charm of an Ordinance ofGod: For 
neither Balak nor Balaam aimed to give honour and glory to God 
thereby, but to use them as it were a bribe, to try if thereby they 
could prevail with the Lord to reverse his word, whereby he had 
said of Isra el, They are blessed. For when he sees he cannot 
prevail, he faith, God is not a man that he shouldly; and he hath 
blessed, and I cannot reverse it. Again, what Balaam did herein, 
it was not sincerely for God, but for his hire, Neh 13. 2. Even for 
rewards of Divination, Numb. 22. 7. For the wages of 
unrighteousness, 2 Pet. 2, 15. Possibly also there might be 
somewhat like inchantment in the manner of his sacrificing; as 
Sacrificing in the high places of Baal, and on the top of Peor, 
places formerly dedicated to Baal. Peor. Thus Balaam by his 

Enchantments deserved the title of a Soothsayer or Diviner and 
mad Prophet. Prop. 5. Though there be no plain example of a 
Malifick Witch; yet from what the Scripture faith of the power of 
Satan and his malice against man, and of the wickedness that is 
in the 

Page 153 

heart of man; we may see there is a possibility of such 
abominable creatures to be found in the black list of Satans 
guard. For, 1. Satan hath power when the Lord permits him, to 
do mischief to the bodies and estates of mankind, as already 
proved in the instances of Job and others. 2. There be some 
persons so wicked that Ahaz like, they will sacrifice to and serve 
the Devil, that he may help them. And if in other things, why not 
in revenging them upon those they hate, as well as in other 
matters? As Israel flew their brethren in a rage that reached up 
to heaven: so some will pursue their adversaries with a rage 
reaching down to hell. And excess of anger gives great 
advantage to the Devil, Eph 4. 26, 27. Let not the Sun go down 
upon your wrath; neither give place to the Devil. If sinful anger 
gives the Devil a place, how much more such a rage as whereby 
men go to hell for aid against their foes? When men seek to 
Satan for revenge, he will be ready to further them in it; by 
discoursing with them, (as he did with Eve, yea with Christ 
himself, Math. 4.) to see what he may gain upon them thereby: 
or by tempting them to sacrifice to him, or use his ceremonies 
and ordinances, whereby, Satan is implicitely at least invoked for 
to do his utmost on their behalf. And Satan that promised to the 
spotless Lamb of God, all the kingdoms of the world, will be 

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to promise such miscreants to revenge them on their 
adversaries, or any mischief they desire, if they will serve him. 
And at some times to perform his promise if the Lord suffer him, 
as the roaring Lyon that seeks to devour: or at least will pretend 
himself author, of the harms the envyed person sustaines. But if 
he cannot, yet he can answer such deluded creatures, that either 
they did not observe his direction, or that God hath set an hedge 
about the party maligned, or the like, and so keep up his credit 
still. Mrs. Got, a very credible and pious woman told me, That 
her father Mr. Palmer lived nigh a man that acknowledged 
himself to be a Conjurer On a certain day there came a violent 
wind upon Mr. Palmers house, as if it would blow it down: but it 
only blew down an Elm tree that stood in his Court yard. In 
process of time this Conjurer came to Mr. Palmer and confessed, 

that he had a grudge against him, and thereupon did invocate 
the Devil to do Palmer a mischief, and he promised to blow down 
Palmers house; but only blew down the Elm: whereupon the 
Conjurer taxed the Daemon with breach of promise: But he 
answered, Palmer was a Praying man, and God had set an hedge 
about all that he had need of, and so he had no power over his 
house; but the Elm being only for shew and recreation, he had 
power over that. As for matters of fact, I must refer to histories 
that speak of Malefick Witchcraft, wherein though many things 
are certain or fabulous, 

Chapter 17 

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there may be truth in some of those relations, And by the above- 
mentioned, and other such histories, we meet with of that kind, 
we may gather, That when persons will seek to the Devil for 
revenge, he will either do harm to those they hate, or it the Lord 
inflict by his hand upon such persons hated by the Conjurers, 
Satan will perswade the Conjurer, that he effected it in 
persuance of their quarrel. But if the desired mischief be not 
effected, the Devil will have a plea to excuse himself. But 
however they which by themselves immediately invocate the 
Devil to help them, to avenge themselves on those they hare, 
are hereby Malefick Witches, whether they obtain his help or not. 
CHAPTER XVII. Having said thus much to shew what the Witches 
condemned by Scripture are, I shall reflect upon some assertions 
laid down in a Book dispersed about Salem, Anno 1695. 

Entituled, Truth held forth and c. Published, by Thomas 
Maul, pag. 221. He faith, What is the Devil, or Hell but nothing? 
that God never created them, for they were Non Entity, a not 
being, which is contrary and perfectly opposite to Entity and 
Being: And this might be the Devil that dwelt in Adam which 
seduced him, Pag. 185. He insinuates, That if people keep Gods 
Commands, or are righteous persons, they 

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cannot be possessed or bewitched by the Devil or his 
instruments; for the cause of their being possessed, or 
bewitched, hath been through a life of disobedience to God, Pag. 
190. Saith The way to know one that is a Witch from one that is 
not a Witch, is by that wisdom, by which the Damosel, Acts 16. 
16. was known to be a Witch, Unto these assertions, I answer 
(1.) By the said Thomas Maul and his Wife: For when B. B. was 
upon herTryal, the said Mauls Wife came in and testified against 
the said B.B. to prove her a Witch, in order to her Condemnation 

for Witchcraft: And the same day said B. was Executed, T. Maul 
said in my hearing, that if he had been desired to pray with her 
at her Execution, he would not; for he believed she was guilty of 
that sin the Scripture faith, we must not pray for it; for he 
believed she was a Witch, and had covenanted with the Devil, 
and forsaken God; and that was the sin we ought not to pray 
for.He said also that he could have come in a witness against 
her, if he would; and that he believed she had bewitched to 
death a Child of his And he believed most of those in Prison were 
Witches. From hence I gather, that in the year 1692, T. Maul did 
believe the Devil to be an Entity, and that a Witch by him had 
power to bewitch to death the Child of him that he esteemed a 
righteous person; believing as others did, save that he counted a 
Witch guilty of the unpardonable sin. But when 

Page 157 

others find an error in proceeding too far in these matters, he 
comes to see it also: And to avoid it, runs into another extream; 
which I prove by the ensuing Propositions. Prop. 1. The Devils 
were once holy Angels, created by God, and so Entities. This 
appeareth by many Scriptures before mentioned: As by his 
tempting our Saviour, Mat 4. Who had no corrupt quality within 
him; being the spotless Lamb of God; yet him did Satan tempt, 
yea take him up into the holy City, and set him on the pinacle of 
the Temple, and into an high mountain, and shew him all the 
Kingdoms of the World, and the glory of them. These things 
could not be done by aNon Ens. I shall add some farther 
confirmation from other places, (1) fude 6 Angels were created 
by God. The Devils are Angels. (2) They that left their own 
habitation are Entities. But the Devils left their own habitation: 
Therefore Entities. (3) They that sinned, and for their sin are 
delivered into Chains of Darkness, to be reserved unto 
Judgment, are Entities: But so did the Devil, 2 Pet 2 4 Therefore, 
and c (4) He that is the Prince of this World, the God of this 
World, the Prince of the power of the Air; be that goeth to and 
fro in the earth, and walketh up and down in it, is a Being, an 
Entity. But such is the Devil. Job 1 7 Joh 14 30. 2 Cor 4 4. Eph 
2.2 Therefore So then the denying the Entity of the Devil, is a 
reviving the old Doctrine of the Sadduces Act 22. 8. Who said. 
There is neither Angel nor Spirit. 

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Prop. 2. There was no Devil dwelt in Adam to seduce him before 
he was tempted by Eve to eat of the tree of knowledge of good 
and evil The Devil, faith he, is not a Being, yet dwelt in Adam, 
and seduced him: By this Devil in Adam then, he meaneth a 

sinful quality in Adam before he was tempted to eat, or it was a 
name without signification. But there could be no such evil 
quality in Adam before so tempted. For if it were, it must be 
created with him, or enter into him before Eve did tempt him: 

But neither of these, therefore not at all. Not the former, for he 
was created upright, Eccl 7. 29 Very good, and in Gods Image, 
Gen 1. 26, 27, 31 Not the latter, for the Scripture gives no 
intimation of any evil in Adam before seduced by the woman (2) 
Nay the Devil that seduced him was without him, even the 
Serpent or Devil in the Serpent, that seduced Eve first by talking 
with her, and by her was he deceived, Gen 3. 1. to 6. 2 Cor. 11 
3. 1 Tim. 2. 14 Adam was not deceived (that is first) but the 
woman, and c. (3) The Lord in punishing that first sin, doth 
distinctly punish Adam, Eve and the Serpent (in which is 
comprehended the Devil that old Serpent. Gen. 3. 14,15. with 2 
Cor. 11 3. Rev. 20. 2. as three distinct Entities or Beings; therefore 
the Devil was without, ad extra, before Adam was beguiled. 

Prop. 3. All wicked men are not Witches as T. Maul holds forth, p. 
183. and 193. and c. Saying, 

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All that live a life of disobedience are Witches in some degree, 
with more to that effect. For if all wicked persons were Witches 
in the sence intended, Exod. 22 18. Deut. 18. 10. Then all 
wicked men should have been put to death by the law of Moses 
But there was no such thing. Nay all the heathen Idolaters were 
not called Witches, or Sorcerers in Egypt or Babylon, but only 
some peculiar persons among them. And of all had 
familiarSpirits, there had not been that need of such a warning 
Regard not them which have familiar Spirits, nor seek after 
Wizards, and c. Prop 4 God hath no where promiled all people 
that keep Gods Commands, or are righteous persons, that they 
shall not be possessed or bewitched by the Devil or his 
Instruments. Indeed it is sometimes so, a. Numb, 23, 21, 23 There 
is no inchantment against Jacob, neither any divination against 
Israel; when God hath not beheld iniquity in Jacob, nor seen 
perverseness in Israel. And our best shield against Satan is faith 
in Christ, with prayer and an holy life. Yet Job a perfect man did 
suffer more in his Bode, Goods, Servants and Children then most 
wicked men in the World have done And it was a Daughter of 
Abraham whom Satan bound eighteen years, Luk, 13 16. And a 
Mother of whom it is said, 0 woman great is thy faith be it unto 
thee even as thou wilt; who had a Daughter grievously vexed 
with a Devil possessing of her. So that God in his Soveraignty 
makes all things come alike to all 

Page 160 

when he pleaseth; so that no man knoweth love or hatred by any 
thing that is before him. Prop 5. The bewitching spoken of, Gal 3. 
It is not to be understood of a proper or literal bewitching, but in 
a Metaphorical sence where by way of allusion, the false 
Teachers are compared to Witches, as being like them; for as 
Witches have bewitched the eyes of the Body so they bewitched 
the eyes of the mind. And though Witchcraft be one kind of the 
work of the flesh mentioned, Gal 5 19,20,21. Yet the Text doth 
not say, all the works of the Flesh are Witchcraft: But this is 
distinct from Murder, Drunkenness and the rest, as they are 
dislinct each from other. Prop. 6 The Wisdom of God doth no 
where say, that the Damosel mentioned, Act. 16 16 was a Witch. 
But it describeth her to be a person possessed with a spirit of 
divination, or having a spirit of Python within her: Whom Paul in 
the name of Christ commanded to come out of her, and so he 
was cast out. That Spirit that calleth her a Witch, doth 
consequentially at least call the Damosel, Mark 7 25. a Witch, 
because she had an unclean spirit; and so would render all the 
possessed in the Gospel, worthy of death by Moses Law; which is 
to subvert all the Scriptures which condemn that abomination. It 
was therefore a blasphemous comparison which he made, who 
said, There was as great mistakes in the Scripture, as in T. Mauls 

Page 161 

Book; presuming therein to equalize to the lively Oracles of God, 
a Book abounding with gross mistakes in Doctrine and History. 

Q. How may a Witch, Sorcerer or Conjurer be proved to be such 
as being legally convicted to receive the punishment appointed? 
Exod 27 18. A. I answer from 1 Sam. 28 Chap. We find here that 
Saul put away those that had familiar spirits, and Wizards out of 
the Land, vers. 3 Yet one was lest at Endor, v. 7. Saul then had a 
way to convict them; and the Woman atEndor points at the way, 
v. 9. For Saul had said to her, Divine unto me by the familiar 
spirit, and bring me him up whom I shall name unto thee: The 
Woman answers, Wherefore then layest thou a snare for my life, 
to cause me to dye? 9.d If it be proved by sufficient witness, that 
I Divine by a familiar Spirit, and raise a Ghost from the Dead, I 
must dy by the Law. But Saul sweareth to her by the Lord, As 
Jehovah liveth, there shall no punishment happen to thee for this 
thing. And then she proceeds. Note, that this woman tho' she 
dealt with and by the Devil, hath so much knowledge of Jehovah, 
and confidence in an Oath made by him, that she ventures her 
life upon it. Again, v. 21. After she had raised the supposed 
Samuel, she said unto Saul; I have obeyed thy voice, and have 

put my life in my band. As if she had said, I have done that in 
obedience to thee; that were it proved against me, would take 
away my life. Here then we see 

Page 162 

that if it can be proved against any, that they have divined by a 
familiar spirit, or done such like act of communion with the Devil, 
or raised the Dead by him that is the Devil in likeness of the 
Dead; then such a person is proved to be a Witch that ought to 
die: So in like manner, if any be proved to use Sorceries (as did 
the Magicians of Egypt) among Christian people, such ought to 
dye, or proportionably by familiarity with the Devil to do, or 
come to know strange things, or work signs, lying wonders, or 
miracles by him, as they are called 2 They 2 9 Rev. 13 13, 14. 
Deut 13. 1, 2. Q But by what way may such Divinations and 
Sorceries be proved? A In the same way that Murder, Thest, and 
such like crimes are provable. As (1.) By the testimony of two 
Witnesses, that the party suspected hath used Sorcery, and c, 

(2) Confession may in some cases be taken in this crime as well 
as others, as hath been above-shewed; If the person, be 
compote mentis, and give as clear demonstration of their guilt of 
the fact, as Baaneh and Rechab did of their slaying Ishbosheth, 
when they brought his head to David, 2 Sam. 4 6, and c (3) The 
testi mony of partners in the crime in some cases, as above 
shewed, Chap. 11. (4.) Circumstances antecedent to, 
concomitant with, or suddenly consequent upon such acts of 
Sorcery, have like force to fasten a suspicion of this crime upon 
this or that person; as the like 

Page 163 

circumstances have to fasten a suspicion upon any for another 
crime attended with them; putatis mutandis. Here it may be 
enquired, Whether persons obsessed, possessed, or under bodily 
torments or vexations by Satan, are sit witnesses? I answer in 
the ensuing Propositions. Prop. 1. Those whose Bodies are sorely 
afflicted by the Devil, and yet their understandings clear and 
free, are fit to be Witnesses as well as others. As was Job, who 
when Satan had smitten him with sore boyls from head to foot, 
yet was a fit witness for God. Job 42. 7. Speaking of God the 
thing that was right. Prop. 2. Some under these molestations of 
Satan have their understandings so darkened and phantasies so 
abused, that they are not in their right mind, till delivered from 
Satan, as was the case of the man among the Tombs, Mark. 6 2, 
3, 15. So the Damosel, Acts 16 16, 17. Though she gave a true 
testimony concerning Paul and Silas, yet she was no sit 
witness, because he spake by the instigation of Satan, and not of 

her own knowledge. So it may be proportionably in persons 
under the influence of inchantment, or obsession by Satan, 
although in a lesser degree. Prop. 3. Hence it may follow, that a 
person under these assaults of hell, may be fit for a witness at 
one time, when free from these fits, which darken his 
understanding: But not another 

Page 164 

time, viz when the sences are beclouded by the violence of their 
fits. Again, they may be fit to testifie to some things; namely to 
what they feel and suffer upon their own Bodies: But not of what 
they see at some distance, or about external and remoter 
objects; because their eye and phantasies may be under some 
kind of fascination (as I may call it) of the Devil; so as to mistake 
one thing for another. Obj But is it not then according to the 
principle laid down above, impossible to prove any person to be 
a Witch; seeing the workings between Satan and them are so 
secret? How can they be discovered? A. Other Malefactors work 
secretly and in the dark, hoping never to be discovered. Job 24 
14, 15,16,17. The Murderer, Thief, Adulterer, say no eye shall see 
me, and disguise their faces, dig in the dark, and c. But the Lord 
searcheth out such Malefactors, when settled on their lees with 
his candle of judgment, though they dig deep to hide themselves 
from men; yea, and if it were possible, from God himself. They 
say Who seeth us? who knoweth us, Zeph 1 12 Isa 29 15,16. Yet 
the Lord brings all to light before men when he pleaseth, So 
theLord can and doth discover Sorcerers, Magicians, and all sorts 
of Witches, when, and as oft as he pleaseth; and sometimes 
leaves them to discover and betray themselves: And sometimes 
over-rules their Master whom they serve, to intrap and deceive 
them, Pro. 26, 26. Whose hatred it covered by deceit, 

Chapter 18 

Page 165 

his wickedness shall be shewed before the whole Congregation 
Which is to be understood when the Lord pleaseth to bring to 
light these hidden works of darkness. CHAPTER XVIII. I Shall 
conclude this Discourse with some Application of the whole. 1. 

We may hence see ground to fear, that there hath been a great 
deal of innocent blood shed in the Christian World, by proceeding 
up: on unsafe principles, in condemning persons for Malefick 
Witchcraft. 2. That there have been great sinful neglects in 
sparing others, who by their divinings about things future, or 
discovering things secret, as stollen Goods, and c or by their 
informing of persons and things absent at a great distance, have 

implored the assistance of a familiar spirit, yet coloured over 
with specious pretences, and have drawn people to enquire of 
them: A sin frequently forbidden in Scripture, as Lev. 19 31 and 
20. 6. Isa. 8, 19, 20. and yet let alone, and in many parts of the 
World, have been countenanced in their diabolical skill and 
profession; because they serve the interest of those that have a 
vain curiosity, to pry into things God hath forbidden, and 
concealed from discovery by lawful means. And of others that by 
their inchantments, have raised mists, strange sights, 

Page 166 

and the like, to beget admiration, and please Spectators, and c. 
When as these divinations and operations are the Witchcraft 
more condemned in Scripture than the other. 3. But to come 
nigher home, we have cause to be humbled for the mistakes and 
errors which have been in these Colonies, in their Proceedings 
against persons for this crime, above fourty years ago and 
downwards, upon insufficient presumptions and presidents of our 
Nation whence they came. I do not say, that all those were 
innocent, that suffered in those times upon this account. But that 
such grounds were then laid down to proceed upon, which were 
too slender to evidence the crime they were brought to prove; 
and thereby a foundation laid to lead into error those that came 
after. May we not say in this matter, as it is, Psal 105 6. We 
have sinned with our fathers? And as, Lam 5 7. Our fathers have 
sinned and are not and we have born their iniquities? And 
whether this be not one of the sins the Lord hath been many 
years contending with us for, is worthy our serious enquiry. If 
the Lord punished Israel with famine three years for a sin of 
misguided zeal fourty years before that, committed by the 
breach of a Covenant made four hundred years before that: 2 
Sam, 21. 1, 2. Why may not the Lord visit upon us the 
misguided zeal of our Predecessors about Witchcraft above fourty 
years ago, even when that Generation is gathered to their 

Page 167 

4. But I would come yet nearer to our own times, and bewail the 
errors and mistakes that have been in the year 1692. In the 
apprehending too many we may believe were innocent, and 
executing of some, I fear, not to have been condemned; by 
following such traditions of our fathers, maxime of the Common 
Law, and Presidents and Principles, which now we may see 
weighed in the balance of the Sanctuary, are found too light. I 
heartily concur with that direction for our publick prayers, 
emitted December 17, 1696 by our General Assembly, in an 

order for a general Fast, viz. That God would shew us what we 
know not, and help us wherein we have done amiss, to do so no 
more: And especially that whatever mistakes on either hand, 
have been fallen into, either by the body of this people, or any 
order of men, referring to the late tragedy raised among us by 
Satan and his Instruments, through the awful Judgment of God: 
He would humble us therefore, and pardon all the errors of his 
Servants and People, that desire to love his Name, and be 
attoned to his land. I am abundantly satisfyed that those who 
were most concerned to act and judge in those matters, did not 
willingly depart from the rules of righteousness. But such was 
the darkness of that day, the tortures and lamentations of the 
afflicted, and the power of former presidents, that we walked in 
the clouds, and could not see our way. (And we have most cause 
to be humbled for error on 

Page 168 

that hand, which cannot be retrieved. So that we must beseech 
the Lord, that if any innocent blood hath been shed, in the hour 
of temptation, the Lord will not lay it to our charge, but be 
merciful to his people whom he hath redeemed, Deut. 21. 8. And 
that in the day when he shall visit, he will not visit this sin upon 
our land, but blot it out, and wash it away with the blood of 
Jesus Christ. 5. I would humbly propose whether it be not 
expedient, that some what more should be publickly done then 
yet hath, for clearing the good name and reputation of some that 
have suffered upon this account, against whom the evidence of 
their guilt was more slender, and the grounds for charity for 
them more convincing, And this (in order to our obtaining from 
the Lord farther reconciliation to our land,) and that none of their 
surviving relations, may suffer reproach upon that account. I 
have both read and heard of several in England, that have been 
executed for Capital crimes, and afterwards up on sence of an 
error in the process against them, have been restored in blood 
and honour by some publick act. My Lord Cook relates a story. A 
man going to correct a Girle his Neice, for some offence, in an 
upper room, the Girle strove to save her self, till her nose bled, 
and wiping it with a cloath, threw the bloody cloath out at the 
window, and cryed Murder; and then ran down staires, got away 
and hid her self. Her Uncle was prosecuted 

Page 169 

by her friends upon suspicion of Murdering her, because she 
could not be found. He declared that she made her escape, as 
above said. Then time was allowed him to bring her forth, but he 
could not hear of her within the time, and fearing he should dy if 

she could not be found, procures another Girle very like her, to 
appear in Court, and declare she was his Neice that had been 
missing: But her relations examine this counterfeit, until they 
find her out, and she confesseth she was suborned and 
counterfeited the true Neice. Upon these presumptions the man 
was found guilty of Murdering his Neice, and thereupon 
executed. And after his execution his true Neice comes abroad 
and shews her self alive and well. Then all that saw it were 
convinced of the Uncles innocency, and vanity of such 
presumptions. The Printing and Publishing of this relation 
Vindicates the good name of the Uncle, from the imputation of 
the crime of Murder. And this is one end of this present 
discourse, to take off (so far as a discourse of this nature can) 
infamy from the names and memory of such sufferers in this 
kind, as do not deserve the same. 6. Here it may be suitable for 
us to enquire, What the Lord speaks to us by such a stupendeous 
providence, in his letting loose Satan upon us in this unusual 
way? Ans. 1. We may say of this, as our Saviour said of his 
washing his disciples feet, Job. 13. What I do thou knowest not 
now but thou shalt know hereafter. The Judgments of the Lord 
are a great deep, Psal. 36,6, How unsearchable are 

Page 170 

his judgments, and his ways past finding out? 2. Yet somewhat 
of his counsel at present for our instruction may be known, by 
comparing the Word and works of God together. 1. As when 
Joshua the high Priest though an holy chosen man of God, stood 
before the Angel, Satan Stood at his right hand to resist him or 
to be his adversary: And the advantage Satan had was by the 
filthy garments Joshua was clothed with before the Angels: That 
is, some iniquity which yet was not passed away, Zech, 3,1, 3,4. 
So we may say here were among Gods own Children filthy 
garments. The sins of Luke-warmness, loss of our first love, 
unprofitableness under the Gospel, slumbering and sleeping in 
the wise, as well as foolish Virgins, worldliness, pride, carnal 
security, and many other sins. By these and such like sins the 
accuser of the Brethren got advantage to stand at our right hand 
(the place of an Accuser in Courts of Justice) and there accuse us 
and resist us. 2. When the Egrptians refused to let. Israel go to 
sacrifice and keep a feast to the Lord in the Wilderness: The Lord 
cast upon the fierceness of his wrath, by sending Evil Angels 
among them Psal. 78, 49 Egypts sins were (1.) Covereousness, 
they would not let Israel go, because they gained by their 
labours. (2.) Contempt of God and his Instituted Worship, and 
Ordinances. They did not count them of such concernment, that 
Israel should go into the Wilderness 

Page 171 

to observe them. Both these sins have too much increased in our 
Land. (1.) Coveteousness, an inordinate love of the World gave 
Satan advantage upon us. (2.) Contempt of Gods Worship and 
Instituted Ordinances. The Errand of our Fathers into this 
Wilderness, was to Sacrifice to the Lord; that is, to worship God 
in purity of heart and life, and to wait upon the Lord, walking in 
the faith and order of the Gospel in Church fellowship; that they 
might enjoy Christ in all his Ordinances. But these things have 
been greatly neglected and despised by many born, or bred up in 
the Land. We have much forgotten what our Fathers came into 
the Wilderness to see. The sealing Ordinances of the Covenant of 
Grace in Church-Communion have been much slighted and 
neglected; and the fury of this Storm raised by Satan hath fallen 
very heavily upon many that lived under these neglects. The 
Lord sends Evil Angels to awaken and punish our negligence: 

And to my knowledge some have been hereby excited to enter 
into the Chamber of Gods Ordinances, to hide themselves, until 
the indignation be over past. 3. David when he removed the Ark 
from Kirjathjearim, had the Ark put into a new Cart, which 
should have been carried by the Kohathites. Numb. 3 31. And 
David thought this was right, until the Lord slew Uzza for 
touching the Ark: But then he looked more exactly into 

Page 172 

the will of God; and confesseth that the Lord made a breach 
upon them, because they sought him not after the due order, 1 
Chron. 13. 5,7,9,10. and 15, 11, 12, 13. Had not the Lord made 
that breach up on them, they had persisted securely in their 
error. So I may say in this case. In the prosecution of Witchcraft, 
we fought not the Lord after the due order; but have proceeded 
after the methods used in former times and other places, until 
the Lord in this tremendous way made a breach upon us, And 
hereby we are made sensible that the methods formerly used are 
not sufficient to prove the guilt of such a crime. And this I 
conceive was one end of the Lords letting Satan loose to torment 
and accuse so many; that hereby we may search out the truth 
more exactly. For had it not been for this dreadful dispensation, 
many would have lived and dyed in that error, which they are 
now convinced of. 4. The Lord delivered into the hand of Satan, 
the Estate, Children, and Body of Job, for the tryal of Jobs faith 
and patience, and proof of his perfection and uprightness. So the 
Lord hath delivered into Satans hand mens Children and Bodies, 
yea names and estates into Satans hand for the tryal of their 
faith and patience, and farther manifestation of the sincerity of 

their professions. 7. From that part of the discourse which shews 
the power of Satan to torment the bodies, 

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and disturb the minds of those, he is let loose upon, Chap. 6. I 
would infer, that Satan may be suffered so to darken the minds 
of some pious Souls, as to cause them to destroy them-selves by 
drowning, hanging, or the like. And when he hath so far 
prevailed upon some, that formerly lived a Christian life, but 
were under the prevalency of a distracting Melancholy at their 
latter end: We may have Charity that their Souls are Saved, 
notwithstanding the sad conclusion of their lives. I speak not to 
excuse any that having the free use of their reason willingly 
destroy themselves, out of pride, discontent, impatience, and c. 
Achitophel who out of heigth of Spirit because his Counsel was 
not followed, and to prevent Davids executing of him, for his 
rebellion and treason, destroyed himself, hath left his name to 
stink unto all generations. And Judas who for his unparalelled 
treachery in betraying his Master, and the Lord of life, was justly 
left to hange himself; and the rope breaking or slipping he fell 
down head long, or with his face down ward, so that he burst 
asunder in the midst, and all his bowels gushed out, Math. 27. 5. 
with Act. 1. 18. left by his sin and punishment in the last act of 
his life the black character of a Son of perdition. But those that 
being out of their right minds, and hurried by an evil Spirit, as 
persons under a force to be their own executioners, are not 
always to be ranked with these. 

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8. Seeing we have been too fierce against supposed Malefick 
Witchcraft; let us take heed we do not on the contrary become 
too favourable to divining Witchcraft And become like Saul who 
was too zealous against the Gibeonites, and at last turned to 
seek after one that had a familiar Spirit, to his own destruction. 
Let us not, it we can help it, suffer Satan to set up an ensuring 
office for stolen Goods. That after he hath brought the curse of 
God into the house of the thief, by tempting him to steal: he may 
not bring about the curse into the houses of them from whom 
the goods were stolen; by alluring them to go to the god of 
Ekron to enquire. That men may not give their Souls to the Devil 
in exchange, for his restoring to them their goods again, in such 
a way of divination. The Lord grant it may be said of New 
Englasd, as is prophecyed of Judah, Mic. 5 12. I will cut off 
Witchcrafts out of thine hand, and thou shalt have no more 
soothsayers. 9. Anothe: extream we must beware of, is, viz. 
Because our fathers in the beginning times of this Land; did not 

see so far into these mysteries of iniquity, as hath been since 
discovered. Let us not undervalue the good foundations they laid 
for God and his people, and for us in Church and Civil 
Government. For Paul that eminent Apostle knew but in part; no 
wonder then, it out Fathers were imperfect men. In the purest 
times in Isreal, there were 

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some Clouds of ignorance over shadowing of them. Abraham, 
David, and the best Patriarchs were generally ignorant of the sin 
of Polygamy. And although Solomon far exceeded Nebemiab in 
wisdom; yet Nehemiah saw farther into the evil of Marrying 
Outlandish Women, than that wisest of Kings, and meer fallen 
men. Neb. 13. 26. Josiah kept the Passe-over more exactly, than 
David, and all the Reforming Kings of Judah, 2 Chron. 35. 18. All 
the godly Judges and Kings of Judab were unacquainted with, 
and so negligent of the right observation of the feast of 
Tabernacles, until it came to Nebemiabs time: And he 
understood and revived an ordinance of God, that lay buried in 
oblivion, near about a thousand years. Now he that shall reject 
all the good in doctrine and practice, which was maintained, 
professed and practiced by so many Godly leaders, because of 
some few errors found among them, will be found to fight 
against God. A dwarf upon a giants shoulders, can see farther 
than the giant. It was a glorious enterprize of the beginners of 
these Colonies, to leave their native Country to propagate the 
Gospel: And a very high pitch of faith, zeal, and courage that 
carryed them forth, to follow the Lord into this wilderness, into a 
land that was not sown. Then was New England holiness to the 
Lord, and all that did devour them, or attempted so to do, did 

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offend, and evil did come upon them, And the Lord did graciously 
remember this kindness of their Youth, and love of their 
Espousals; In granting them many eminent tokens of his favour; 
by his presence with them in his Ordinance for the Conversion of 
Souls, and edifying and comforting the hearts of his Servants: By 
signal answering their prayers in times of difficulty: By protecting 
them from their Enemies: By guiding of, and providing for them 
in a Desart. And the Lord will still remember this their kindness 
unto their Posterity, unless that by their Apostaty from the Lord, 
they vex his Holy Spirit, to turn to be their Enemy: And thereby 
cut off the Entail of his Covenant Mercies; which God forbid. Oh 
that the Lord mar be with us, as he was with our Fathers; and 
that he may not leave us, nor forsake us! FINIS.